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authoritarianism Mar. 22nd, 2006 @ 12:28 pm
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authoritarianism- n : a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.) [syn: dictatorship, absolutism, Caesarism, despotism, monocracy, one-man rule, shogunate, Stalinism, totalitarianism, tyranny]

FLEETWOOD MAC & STEVIE NICKS Mar. 22nd, 2006 @ 12:13 pm
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fleetwood_Mac


In the late 1960s, Fleetwood Mac was a success among British blues bands. The band was started by guitarist Peter Green, who recruited the rhythm section of John Mayall's Bluesbreakers: drummer Mick Fleetwood and bass guitarist John McVie. Green himself had replaced a departing member, Eric Clapton, as the lead guitarist of the "Bluesbreakers"; Green and McVie had appeared on Mayall's 1967 A Hard Road album. The band employed another bassist, Bob Brunning, until John McVie was persuaded to join the band. Slide-guitarist and Elmore James devotee, Jeremy Spencer, rounded out the lineup.

Its full name was now "Peter Green's Fleetwood Mac featuring Jeremy Spencer." The band released two albums of Chicago-based blues. It also released a single, "Black Magic Woman," which, when re-recorded by Santana in 1970 (on his album Abraxas), became a top five U.S. hit

Stephanie Lynn "Stevie" Nicks (born May 26, 1948 in Phoenix, Arizona) is an American singer and songwriter, best known for her work with Fleetwood Mac and a long solo career.

Early career and Fleetwood Mac
Nicks met future partner Lindsey Buckingham while attending Menlo Atherton High School and along with two others formed a band called Fritz which became popular as a live act from 1968 until 1972. They were the opening act for, among others, Jimi Hendrix and Janis Joplin. After the band parted, Nicks and Buckingham remained as a duo releasing the album Buckingham Nicks in 1973. While not a commercial success it caught the attention of drummer Mick Fleetwood who was looking for a new guitarist for his band Fleetwood Mac. Stevie was reduced to cleaning houses at the time that Fleetwood Mac stumbled onto the duo. They invited the duo to join them, and the new ensemble released the album Fleetwood Mac in 1975. Nicks contributed songs including "Rhiannon" and "Landslide", originally written for the second Buckingham Nicks album. The team-up proved to be successful, as a revitalised Fleetwood Mac enjoyed its first #1 on the Billboard 200 and sold more than five million copies.

Its follow-up Rumours released in 1977 became one of the all-time best-selling albums, selling more than 19 million copies. With several Nicks songs such as "Gold Dust Woman", "I Don't Want to Know", and Fleetwood Mac's only Billboard Hot 100 number one single, Dreams, which was written by Nicks while she was taking a short break in another room as the band was recording during the making of the Rumours album. The recording of Rumours was a difficul time for the band as Stevie and Lindsay were splitting up as were Christine & John McVie which produced a tense but productive working environment with many of the songs seeming to directly address former partners.

The band's next album Tusk was more experimental in sound, and while successful, alienated some of its fans. Though the album sold four million copies, it was dramatically less successful than Rumours. The double album contained Nicks' "Sister of the Moon", "Angel", "Beautiful Child", and "Storm", along with the Top 10 hit "Sara", which reached #8 on the charts. Around this time Nicks had another hit with Kenny Loggins on "Whenever I Call You Friend."

Solo career
Nicks recorded her first solo album Bella Donna in 1981. Its lead single "Stop Dragging My Heart Around" was a collaboration with Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers and it reached number three on the Billboard Hot 100. Other singles included "Leather and Lace" (#6) with Don Henley, "After the Glitter Fades" (#32) and "Edge of Seventeen" (#11). Bella Donna reached No. 1 on the Billboard 200 and as of 1990 is certified quadruple (4x) platinum.

Fleetwood Mac reconvened for their 1982 album Mirage and Stevie contributed the hit "Gypsy." The album quickly went double platinum.

Nicks released a second solo album titled The Wild Heart in 1983. It also went double platinum, reached #5 on the Billboard Hot 100, and featured three hit singles: the Prince inspired track "Stand Back" (#5); "If Anyone Falls" (#14); and "Nightbird" (#33). In addition, several more songs not released as singles were played on rock radio and made the Mainstream Rock chart: "Enchanted" (#12); "Nothing Ever Changes" (#19); and "I Will Run to You" (#35).

In 1985, she released the platinum Rock a Little (#12), scoring more hit singles: "Talk To Me" (#4); "I Sing for the Things" (#60) and "I Can't Wait". The "Rock A Little" tour following the release of the album was widely successful, resulting in a filmed concert at the legendary Red Rocks Amphitheatre in Colorado, and a solo outing with Tom Petty and Bob Dylan in Australia. Though Nicks was at the top of her game professionally, a devastating drug addiction was taking a toll on her voice, career, and personal life.

In 1986, Nicks was treated for cocaine addiction at the Betty Ford Center. Later, Nicks was prescribed Klonopin, a sedative, to counteract her anxiety after ceasing her use of cocaine. This led to another addiction battle that she would not overcome until 1994.

Her next album with Fleetwood Mac, titled Tango in the Night, included Nicks' song "Seven Wonders," which reached #19 on the Billboard charts. Sandy Stewart wrote the song "Seven Wonders," and because Nicks had only listened to the song a few times before recording it, the lines "all the way down you held the line" was misheard by Nicks as "all the way down to Emmeline". Fleetwood Mac had always had personality conflicts, but the tension between Buckingham and Nicks had grown unbearable; Buckingham quit the group right before their Tango in the Night world tour.

Though set back by the departure, Fleetwood Mac eventually toured anyway, replacing Buckingham with Rick Vito and Billy Burnette for the release of their Greatest Hits album and a world tour in 1988. The new line-up would record two songs for the release, "As Long As You Follow" and Nicks' "No Questions Asked". The album has sold 8 million copies to date. The band also released a video featuring live performances and sound checks from a show at the Cow Palace in San Fransisco. However, several shows had to be delayed or cancelled and the tour was cut short due to Nicks bout with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (in addition to her dependence on tranquilizers).

Nicks had essentially been working nonstop for nearly 9 years, attenpting to juggle a solo career with her devotion to Fleetwood Mac. None-the-less, Nicks pressed on.

In 1989, she released her solo album The Other Side Of the Mirror. It spawned a major hit with the single "Rooms On Fire" (#16), but this was the only song to make the singles chart; "Whole Lotta Trouble" and "Long Way to Go" did achieve some Mainstream Rock radio play. Although sales were not as solid as previous releases, the album nevertheless went platinum. It also includes the release "Two Kinds of Love," a duet with Bruce Hornsby.

Nicks returned to Fleetwood Mac in 1990, when they recorded Behind the Mask. Buckingham's absence was apparent. The album went gold and still hit the Top 20, but was nowhere near the level of success of previous Mac albums. After the "Behind the Mask" tour, Nicks left the group and Christine McVie retired from touring. Nicks was quoted as saying in reference to her departure: "My role in that particular Shakespearean drama is over."

In 1991, Nicks released Timespace ( #30 on The Billboard 200 ), a "best of" album which included contributions from Jon Bon Jovi ("Sometimes It's a Bitch", for which a video was shot to promote the compilation), and Bret Michaels of Poison ("Love's a Hard Game to Play". The third new song, "Desert Angel," was dedicated to the men and women serving in Operation Desert Storm. Nicks apparently had misgivings about the timing of the release and the new material on the album, but was put under pressure by her record label to record the songs and move ahead with the project. The album would eventuall go platinum in 1997.

During the 1992 U.S. presidential campaign, Bill Clinton used the Fleetwood Mac hit "Don't Stop" as his campaign theme song. Fleetwood Mac reunited to perform the song at his 1993 Inaugural Gala, where Nicks' weight gain, as a result of prolonged use of tranquilizers, was visible for the world to see.

In 1994, Nicks released the most poorly received album of her career, Street Angel (#45 on the Billboard 200 album chart). "Maybe Love Will Change Your Mind" from the album made #57 on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart. Stevie was crushed by the poor reception to the album, and by the vicious attacks from critics regarding the weight she had gained while on the sedative Klonopin. Nicks then entered seclusion for several years following the Street Angel tour, beat her sedative addiction, and lost weight.

Recent career and collaborations
She returned to the spotlight in 1997 when plans to help Lindsey Buckingham with a solo album turned into one final album with the Rumours-era group. This live album, The Dance, debuted at #1 on the Billboard 200 and Stevie's singles "Landslide" and "Silver Springs" (which had been originally planned for Rumours but shelved due to it's length, much to Stevie's regret) also did well, as did the concert tour. In 1998, the group was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and performed together one final time.

Stevie released a gold-selling boxed set, Enchanted, in 1998 and supported it with a U.S. tour. The tour did well and Nicks was back on top.

In 2001, Nicks reclaimed much commercial and critical success with her solo album Trouble in Shangri-La, which hit #5 on the Billboard 200, and was her highest charting album since 1983's The Wild Heart. The album went gold and has sold upwards of 650,000 copies. A dance remix of one of its two lead singles, "Planets of the Universe," achieved #1 on the Billboard Club Play chart.

A second greatest hits album from Fleetwood Mac, "The Very Best of Fleetwood Mac", was released in 2002 and quickly hit the Top 20 and became yet another platinum smash. Ultimately, this was followed by a studio album with John McVie, Buckingham, and Fleetwood (Christine McVie had retired from the road and the group), their first album together in 16 years (The Dance had been a greatest hits package with a few new songs sprinkled in for flavor). Say You Will was released in 2003. The album received positive reviews and was certified gold. Their tour of America, Europe and Australia ended in September 2004.

After a few months' respite from the Mac's tour, Nicks did a four-night stint in May 2005 at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, and then did a 10-show tour with Don Henley. Nicks continued the tour solo, playing over 20 dates nationwide during the Summer of 2005, ending it where it began, at Caesars Palace. There her set included the rarely-performed-live "If Anyone Falls," the moving "How Still My Love" from Bella Donna and an impressive, high-energy rendition of Led Zeppelin's "Rock and Roll."

On August 10th, 2005 her father, Jess Nicks, passed away.

One of the reasons for Nicks' continued career is the devotion she inspires in her fans. Such notables as Sheryl Crow, the Dixie Chicks, Michelle Branch, Tori Amos and Courtney Love have praised her work, and vice versa. She has done duets or guest vocals for several of their albums and they've returned the favor. The Dixie Chicks covered her 1975 classic "Landslide," which became a smash and hit the Top 10. Smashing Pumpkins also had a significant hit with the song on modern rock radio. She recorded a duet with Chris Isaak on his 2004 Christmas album. She has also made appearances on a number of soundtracks, ranging from 1980 (the cult cartoon Heavy Metal), to 1998 (Practical Magic) and the hit Jack Black comedy School of Rock in 2003.

A notable feature of her albums, especially her compilations, are her liner-note descriptions about each song, and what they mean to her.

Stevie is considered to have been one of the most beautiful women in the music industry. While she has had well-publicized affairs with men ranging from Buckingham to Mick Fleetwood to the late Warren Zevon to Eagles member Don Henley, Nicks has only married once, to Kim Anderson. Her best friend (his wife) had recently died of cancer, leaving behind a husband and young child, and Nicks felt it was her calling to marry Anderson and raise the child. They married in 1983, but the arrangement quickly fell apart and they split a year later.

One of the more persistent rumors which has trailed Nicks through the years is that she is a witch and is heavily involved in Wicca. While she has a love for the mythic (Rhiannon) and gothic and has no problem with any of these beliefs, she has never been associated with Wicca nor has she ever called herself a witch, although her work is copyrighted under the name Welsh Witch Music and themes of witchcraft recur throughout her lyrics.

Stevie currently resides in Paradise Valley, Arizona, a suburb of Phoenix, and in February/March 2006, toured Australia and New Zealand with popular Australian performer John Farnham. It's also rumored that a DVD release highlighting these concerts will be released at a later date.

Pop Culture
In 1998, Lucy Lawless parodied Nicks on Saturday Night Live, in a skit called "Stevie Nicks' Fajita Round-Up." In the skit, Nicks ran a Tex-Mex cantina in Arizona, where all of her signature dishes were take-offs on her song titles. Also in the skit, she ties in her food choices to her drug addictions. Nicks herself had appeared as a SNL musical guest in 1983, performing "Stand Back" and "Nightbird".

In the episode "Osama Bin Laden Has Farty Pants" of South Park a goat is mistaken for her when she and Fleetwood Mac are scheduled to perform in Afghanistan for U.S. soldiers.

In 2002, she sang a spirited version of Elvis Presley's classic song "Won't You Wear My Ring Around Your Neck?" on VH1's Divas Live tribute to Presley and also performed "Landslide" with the Dixie Chicks earlier that evening. In 2004, she sang with Chris Isaak in his PBS Christmas special.

Nicks was ranked # 14 on VH1's list of most influential female artists in music history.

A New York City tribute/concert/festival in honor of Nicks, called Night of 1,000 Stevies, began in 1991 and has grown larger each year. The extravaganza even inspired a 2004 film, Gypsy 83, about two fans who drive all the way from Ohio to perform in the show.

Nicks' solo track "Edge of Seventeen" contributed the guitar part for the Destiny's Child song "Bootylicious" and she appeared in the video as well. An interview about her role in the song and video is featured in the corresponding Making the Video documentary.

The song "Edge of Seventeen" was also featured in the 2003 comedy film School of Rock starring Jack Black. The character played by Joan Cusack says Stevie is her favorite artist.

In the 2003 version of the Disney film Freaky Friday, the mother character (Jamie Lee Curtis) exclaims at one point when she is wearing her daughter's (Lindsay Lohan) clothes, "I look like Stevie Nicks!" (prompting the response from her daughter, "Who's he?").

In 2003, DJ Linus Loves released a cover of "Stand Back" featuring singer Sam Obernik on vocals. Many consider that Obernik's unique performance of the track is somewhat closer to how the song was meant to be performed originally, with the lyrics fitting in with the music much better than Nicks' original.

In 2005, Nicks contributed new vocals to a remake of the Fleetwood Mac song "Dreams" by DJ and house music duo Deep Dish. The song appears on their album George Is On.

Stevie is mentioned in two different episodes of The Simpsons. The first is during a Halloween special in which Mr. Burns comments that Lisa's character possesses "more wicked witchery than Stevie Nicks." The second is when Homer is in bed one morning, and consults his to - do list; two of the four items on the list are "See Stevie Nicks naked".

At the "Fashion Rocks" concert of September 2005 at Radio City Music Hall in New York City, soul singer Joss Stone and singer Rob Thomas covered the Stevie Nicks / Tom Petty 1981 smash hit "Stop Draggin' My Heart Around" to kick-start the Fall Fashion Week.

Stevie Nicks attended the Melbourne Cup Week in Australia in October 2005, at which one of the horse racing stakes was named after her: The Stevie Nicks Plate. She used this opportunity to launch her promotion of an Australia/New Zealand extension to her "Gold Dust Tour" in February and March 2006.

hippie word definitions Mar. 22nd, 2006 @ 12:02 pm
00euphoria00
*Zion- An idealized, harmonious community; utopia

*Utopia- often Utopia is An ideally perfect place, especially in its social, political, and moral aspects

*Babylon- A city or place of great luxury, sensuality, and often vice and corruption.

*Vice- a)An evil, degrading, or immoral practice or habit.
b)A serious moral failing.
c)Wicked or evil conduct or habits; corruption.

*bias- if a statement is bias it is unable to be proved.

*coccrete jungle- a city or area of a city with large unattractive buildings and environment; also called asphalt jungle.

*bro- often breth·ren (brthrn) One who shares a common ancestry, allegiance, character, or purpose with another or others, especially:
A kinsman.
A fellow man.
A fellow member, as of a fraternity, trade union, or panel of judges on a court.
A close male friend; a comrade.
A fellow African-American man or boy.

*dude- Informal. An Easterner or city person who vacations on a ranch in the West.
Informal. A man who is very fancy or sharp in dress and demeanor.
Slang.
A man; a fellow.
dudes Persons of either sex.

THE GRATEFUL DEAD Mar. 7th, 2006 @ 02:02 pm
00euphoria00
The Grateful Dead was an American psychedelia-influenced rock band formed in 1965 in San Francisco from the remnants of another band, "Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions," the Grateful Dead were known for their unique and eclectic songwriting style—which fused elements of rock, folk music, bluegrass, blues, country, and jazz—and for live performances of long modal jams.

Some of the band's fans followed the band from concert to concert for years. These so-called Deadheads were renowned for their dedication to the band's music. Many followers referred to the band simply as The Dead.

The Grateful Dead's career began under the name "The Warlocks" in Palo Alto, California, but as another band was already recording under that name (interestingly, it was the future Velvet Underground), the band had to change its name in order to get a recording contract. After meeting their new manager Rock Scully, they moved to the Haight-Ashbury section of San Francisco. Many bands from this area, such as Jefferson Airplane, Big Brother & the Holding Company, and Santana, went on to national fame, giving San Francisco an image as a center for the hippie counterculture of the era. (Also see entry for the San Francisco Sound.) Of these bands, the Grateful Dead had members with arguably the highest level of musicianship, including banjo and guitar player Jerry Garcia, blues musician "Pigpen" McKernan, the classically trained Phil Lesh and drummer Bill Kreutzmann [1]. The Grateful Dead most embodied "all the elements of the San Francisco scene and came, therefore, to represent the counterculture to the rest of the country".

The name "Grateful Dead" was chosen from a dictionary. Some claim it was a Funk & Wagnalls, others an Oxford Dictionary, but according to Phil Lesh, in his biography (pp. 62), "...Jer (Garcia) picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary...(and)...In that silvery elf-voice he said to me, 'Hey, man, how about the Grateful Dead?'"

The Grateful Dead became the de facto resident band of Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters, with the early sound heavily influenced by Kesey's LSD-soaked Acid Tests, as well as R&B. Their musical influences varied widely with input from the psychedelic music of the era, combined with blues, jazz, rock and roll, and bluegrass. These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead "the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world

Membership
De facto bandleader Jerry Garcia was the lead guitarist for the band—-although he was often seen both by the public and the media as 'leader' or a primary spokesperson for the Grateful Dead, he was reluctant to be seen that way, especially since Garcia and the other group members saw themselves as equal participants and contributors to their collective musical and creative output. Jerry was a native of San Francisco and grew up in the Excelsior District. One of the main influences on his musical style was bluegrass music, and Garcia also performed-—on banjo, his other great instrumental love-—in the bluegrass band Old and in the Way with mandolinist David Grisman. Classically-trained trumpeter Phil Lesh played bass guitar. Bob Weir, the youngest original member of the group, played rhythm guitar. Ron "Pigpen" McKernan played keyboards, harmonica and was also a group vocalist until shortly before his death in 1973 at the age of 27. All of the previously mentioned Grateful Dead members shared in vocal performance of songs, although none of them had a particularly strong or tuneful voice. Bill Kreutzmann played drums, and in 1968 was joined by a second drummer, New York native Mickey Hart, who also played a wide variety of other percussion instruments. Hart quit the Grateful Dead in 1971, embarrassed by the financial misdealings of his father, Dead money manager Lenny Hart, and leaving Kreutzmann once again as the sole percussionist. Hart rejoined the Dead for good in 1975. Tom "TC" Constanten played keyboards alongside Pigpen from 1968 to 1970. Two years later, in late 1971, Pigpen was joined by another keyboardist, Keith Godchaux, who played grand piano alongside Pigpen's Hammond B-3 organ. In early 1972, Keith's wife, Donna Jean Godchaux, joined the Dead as a backing vocalist. Keith and Donna left the band in 1979, and Brent Mydland joined as keyboardist and vocalist. Keith Godchaux died in a car accident in 1980. Brent Mydland was the keyboardist for the Dead for 11 years until his death in 1990. He became the third Dead keyboardist to die. Almost immediately, former Tubes keyboardist Vince Welnick joined on keyboards and vocals. For a year and a half, Welnick was often joined by special guest Bruce Hornsby on piano. Robert Hunter and John Perry Barlow were the band's primary lyricists. Owsley "Bear" Stanley was the Grateful Dead's soundman for many years; he was also one of the largest suppliers of LSD

The Grateful Dead are well-known for their near constant touring throughout their long career in music. They promoted a sense of community among their fans, who became known as Deadheads, many of whom followed their tours for months or years on end. In their early years, the band was also dedicated to their community, the Haight-Ashbury area of San Francisco, making available free food, lodging, music and health care to all comers; they were the "first among equals in giving unselfishly of themselves to hippie culture, performing 'more free concerts than any band in the history of music'

With the exception of 1975, when the band was on "hiatus" and played only four concerts together, the Grateful Dead toured regularly around the USA from the winter of 1965 until July 9, 1995—with a few detours to Canada, Europe and three nights at the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt in 1978. (They also appeared at the legendary Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 and the even more famous Woodstock Festival in 1969; their largest concert audience came in 1973 when they played, along with The Allman Brothers Band and The Band, before an estimated 600,000 people at the Summer Jam at Watkins Glen.)

Their numerous studio albums were generally collections of new songs that had been initially played in concert. The band was famous for its extended jams, which showcased both individual improvisation as well as a distinctive "group-mind" improvisation where each of the band members improvised individually, while still blending together as a cohesive musical unit, often engaging in extended improvisational flights of fancy. A hallmark of their concert sets were continuous sets of music where each song would blend into the next (a segue). Musically this may be illustrated in that the band not only improvised within the form of a song, yet also improvised with the forms.

Wall of Sound
The Wall of Sound was an enormous sound system designed specifically for the Grateful Dead. The band were never satisfied with the house system anywhere they played, so in their early days, soundman Owsley "Bear" Stanley designed a PA and monitor system for them. Stanley's sound systems were delicate and finicky, and frequently brought shows to a halt with technical issues. After Stanley was placed in jail for LSD production in 1970, the group briefly used house PAs, but ultimately found them to be less reliable than the systems conceived by their former soundman. In 1971, the band purchased their first solid sound system from Alembic Inc Studios. Because of this, Alembic would play an integral role in the research, development, and production of the Wall of Sound. The band also welcomed Dan Healy into the fold on a permanent basis that year; Healy was a superior engineer to Stanley and would mix the Grateful Dead's live sound until 1993.

The desire driving the development of the Wall of Sound was for a distortion-free sound system that could serve as its own monitor system. After Owsley Stanley was released from prison in late 1972, he, along with Dan Healey, Mark Raizene of the Grateful Dead's sound crew, and Ron Wickersham, Rick Turner, and John Curl of Alembic Inc accomplished this by essentially combining eleven separate sound systems. Vocals, lead guitar, rhythm guitar, and piano each had their own channel and set of speakers. Phil Lesh's bass was quadraphonic, each of the four strings having its own channel and set of speakers. One channel amplified the bass drum, and two channels amplified the other drums and cymbals in stereo. Because each speaker was producing the sound of just one instrument or vocalist, the sound was exceptionally clear and intermodulation distortion between instruments was nonexistent.

The Wall of Sound was designed to act as its own monitor system, and it was therefore assembled behind the band so the members could hear exactly what their audience was hearing. Because of this, a special microphone system had to be designed to prevent feedback. The Dead used matched pairs of condenser microphones spaced 60mm apart and run out-of-phase. The vocalist sang into the top microphone, and the lower mic picked up whatever other sound was present in the stage environment. The signals were summed, the sound that was common to both mics (the sound from the Wall) was cancelled, and only the vocals were amplified.

The Wall of Sound used 89 300-Watt solid state and three 350-Watt tube amplifiers to produce 26,400 total Watts RMS of audio power. It was capable of producing acceptable sound at a quarter mile, and excellent sound for up to six hundred feet, when the sound began to be distorted by wind. It was the largest portable sound system ever built (although "portable" is a relative term). Four semi trucks and 21 crew members were required to haul and set up the 75-ton Wall.

Though the initial framework and a rudimentary form of the system was unveiled in February 1973 (ominously, every speaker tweeter blew as the band began their first number), the Grateful Dead did not begin to tour with the full system until a year later in 1974. The Wall of Sound was very efficient for its day, but it did have its pitfalls in addition to its sheer size. Synthesist Ned Lagin, who toured with the group throughout much of 1974, never received his own dedicated input into the system, and was forced to use the vocal subsystem for amplification. Because this was often switched to the vocal mikes, many of Lagin's parts were lost in the mix. The Wall's quadraphonic format never translated well to soundboard tapes made during the period, as the sound was compressed into an unnatural stereo format and suffers from a pronounced tinniness.

The rising cost of fuel and personnel, as well as friction among many of the newer crew members (and associated hangers-on), contributed to the band's 1974 "retirement." The Wall of Sound was disassembled, and when the Dead began touring again in 1976, it was with a more logistically practical sound system.

Steal Your Face
In the words of Owsley Stanley:

In 1969 the Dead were renting a warehouse in Novato, California. I was sound man for the band at the time, and lived in Oakland. Bob Thomas, an old friend of mine had just moved from LA to the Bay area and needed a place to stay, and we needed someone to look after the warehouse, which had had a problem with break-ins.

Bob was a superb graphic artist whose work is now familiar to most Deadheads in the form of the Live Dead album cover and the Bear's Choice cover, on which the popular Dancing Bears appeared.

The Dead in those days had to play in a lot of festival style shows where the equipment would all wind up at the back of the stage in a muddle. Since every band used pretty much the same type of gear it all looked alike. We would spend a fair amount of time moving the pieces around so that we could read the name on the boxes. I decided that we needed some sort of marking that we could identify from a distance.

I was in the habit of driving from Oakland to Novato in a little MGTF which had plastic side curtains, which were not very transparent, due to aging of the plastic. One day in the rain, I looked out the side and saw a sign along the freeway which was a circle with a white bar across it, the top of the circle was orange and the bottom blue. I couldn't read the name of the firm, and so was just looking at the shape. A thought occurred to me: if the orange were red and the bar across were a lightning bolt cutting across at an angle, then we would have a very nice, unique and highly identifiable mark to put on the equipment.

At the warehouse I told Bob the idea that I had, and he made a quick sketch. A mutual friend, Ernie Fischbach, who was visiting with Bob, said "Give it to me, I'll show you an easy way to put it on the boxes." Whereupon he proceeded to cut holes in a couple of pieces of stencil paper. One was a circular hole, about 5 1/2 inches in diameter, and the other was a part of a circle 5 inches in diameter. But it was a half circle with a jagged edge. Then he held the stencil to an amp and sprayed a circle of white paint. Then with one side up, the red half circle went on top of the dried white paint and after wiping off the red and turning the stencil over, the blue was applied. This was the first version, and we put it on to all our gear. It helped make it easier to find our stuff in the crunch. I still have an old toolbox with one of the stencils on it.

A few days later I was talking to Bob and suggested that perhaps the words "Grateful dead" could be placed under the circle, using a style of lettering that would appear to be a skull if you saw it from a distance (I guess I was influenced by too many posters of the time). Any way a few hours later he came down from the loft with the design we know and love.

Deadheads
Many of their fans, commonly referred to as Deadheads, would follow the band on tour. In contrast to many other bands, the Grateful Dead encouraged their fans to tape their shows. For many years, almost all of their shows would have dedicated taping sections. The band allowed sharing of tapes of their shows, as long as no profits were made on the sale of their show tapes. In the 1980s, the band scored a top 40 hit with the song "Touch of Grey" (from In the Dark), which garnered a much younger and more mainstream fandom that was considered sharply different from the traditional Deadheads. These new followers were deemed "Touchheads" by the more established fans, a reference to their relative inexperience with the band. The late 1980s and 90s saw the Grateful Dead attracting a huge following that left many long time deadheads in doubt as to whether people were coming out for shows to see the band, or simply to be part of the atmosphere. Whatever their differences, the deadheads are often considered to be the most devoted fans in the rock world.

The parking lot of a Grateful Dead concert was as much a part of the event as the concert itself. One could find items for sale at many cars in the lot, from grilled cheese sandwiches to "kind" brews and nitrous balloons. (Some deadheads would earn their entire touring budget selling such items.) Concertgoers typically congregated in the lot for hours before a show, playing guitar, hacky sacking and getting high. After the show, a deadhead with the post-show munchies could probably find a grilled cheese sandwich made on a camping stove at the door of a VW bus by a friendly hippie.

Live releases
Starting in 1991, the Grateful Dead released numerous live concerts from their archives in two concurrent series: the From the Vault releases are multi-track remixes, whereas the Dick's Picks series (named for the band's late archivist, Dick Latvala) are based on two-track mixes made at the time of the recording. There have been at least 36 Dick's Picks releases as of November 2005. A series of videos began to trickle out of "The Vault", starting with View From the Vault (recorded in Pittsburgh on July 8, 1990 at Three Rivers Stadium) and View from the Vault II (recorded in Washington, DC on June 14, 1991 at RFK Stadium); these releases are accompanied by the simultaneous release of multi-disc soundtrack CDs of the same shows represented on the videos. All three series of releases continue to this day.

In the summer of 2005 the Dead began offering downloadable versions of both their existing live releases, and a new internet-only series, The Grateful Dead Download Series, that is available exclusively through both their own GDStore.com (which offers the albums in both 256 kbit/s mp3 files and FLAC files -- a preferred audio standard for those who archive Dead and other fan-made live recordings on the Internet) and the iTunes Music Store (which offers them in their 128 kbit/s AAC format). Not surprisingly, these Internet-only albums have met with the same success as their CD-based brethren.

In November of 2005, the Dead's management outraged fans by asking the operators of the popular Internet Archive (archive.org) to stop making concerts available for download, and to offer only streamcast recordings instead. The band's spokesman, Dennis McNally, claimed such a repository "doesn't represent Grateful Dead values" because it doesn't foster one-to-one connections between fans. However, David Gans, host of a syndicated radio program, "The Grateful Dead Hour," speculates that the band is motivated by money, noting "when they were making $50 million a year on the road, there wasn't a lot of pressure to monetize their archives."[5]

The removal of the Dead's concerts from Archive.org created a storm of protest, in addition to a rapidly spreading boycott of the band's remaining commercial products. Several days after the announcement that the concerts had been removed, Brewster Kahle of Archive.Org made a cryptic announcement that audience tapes of the concerts would again become available, though so-called board tapes would only be available as streaming audio. Kahle claimed that the whole affair had been a "misunderstanding," but John Perry Barlow, one of the band's lyricists, claimed that concerts had been restored after several members of the band had backed away from their earlier opposition after realizing they had created a public relations "catastrophe."

History
The Grateful Dead formed during the era when bands like the Beatles and Rolling Stones were dominating the airwaves. Former folk-scene star Bob Dylan had recently put out a couple of records featuring electric instrumentation. Grateful Dead members have said that it was after attending a concert by the touring New York "folk-rock" band The Lovin' Spoonful that they decided to "go electric." Gradually, many of the East-Coast American folk musicians, formerly luminaries of the coffee-house scene, were moving in the electric direction. It was natural for Jerry Garcia and Bob Weir, each of whom had been immersed in the American folk-music revival of the late 1950s and early '60s, to be open-minded toward electric guitars. But the new Dead music was also naturally different from bands like Dylan's or the Spoonful, partly because their fellow musician Phil Lesh came out of a schooled classical and electronic-music background, while Ron "Pigpen" McKernan was a no-nonsense deep blues lover and drummer Bill Kreutzmann had a jazz background. Listening to their first LP (The Grateful Dead, Warner Brothers, 1967), one is also reminded that it was recorded only a few years after the big "surfing music" craze; that California rock-music sound seeped in, to some degree, as well.

The Grateful Dead’s early music (in the mid 1960s) was part of the process of establishing what "psychedelic music" was, but theirs was essentially a "street party" form of it. This was natural, because they played psychedelic dances, open-air park events, and closed-street Haight-Ashbury block parties. The Dead were not inclined to fit their music to an established category such as pop rock, blues, folk rock, or country/western. Individual tunes within their repertoire could be identified under one of these stylistic labels, but overall their music drew on all of these genres and more, frequently melding several of them. Often (both in performance and on recording) the Dead left room for exploratory, spacey soundscapes—a form of psychedelia that might run the gamut from strange to exotically beautiful. Most connoisseurs believe that the Grateful Dead's true spirit was rarely well captured in studio performance.

The early records reflected the Dead's live repertoire — lengthy instrumental jams with guitar solos by Garcia, best exemplified by "Dark Star" — but, lacking the energy of the shows, did not sell well. The 1969 live album Live/Dead did capture more of their essence, but commercial success did not come until Workingman's Dead and American Beauty, both released in 1970. These records largely featured the band's laid-back acoustic musicianship and more traditional song structures.


Dissolution and Continuation of the band
Following Garcia's death in 1995, the remaining members formally decided to disband. Though some of them occasionally toured through the late 1990s under the name "The Other Ones", they mainly chose to pursue various solo projects, most notably Bob Weir's Ratdog, Phil Lesh and Friends and Mickey Hart's music for the 1996 Olympics. The remaining members occasionally got together under the pseudonym Crusader Rabbit Stealth Band during the late 1990s, infrequently playing unannounced shows. The mid-2002 fall tour of The Other Ones, with Bob, Bill, Phil and Mickey, was so successful and satisfying that the band decided the name was no longer appropriate. On February 14, 2003, (as they said) "reflecting the reality that [was]," they renamed themselves The Dead, reflecting the abbreviated form of the band name that fans had long used and keeping "Grateful" retired out of respect for Garcia. The members would continue to tour on and off through the end of their 2004 Summer Tour, the "Wave That Flag" tour, named after a lyric from the song, "U.S. Blues." The band accepted Warren Haynes as their new lead guitarist. Haynes is best known for his work with Gov't Mule and the Allman Brothers Band.


Bandmembers
Jerry Garcia - lead guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995)
Bob Weir - rhythm guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995)
Phil Lesh - bass, vocals (1965 - 1995)
Bill Kreutzmann - drums (1965 - 1995)
Mickey Hart - drums (1967 - 1971, 1975 - 1995)
Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - keyboards, vocals, harmonica, percussion (1965 - 1973)
Tom Constanten - keyboards (1968 - 1970)
Keith Godchaux - keyboards (1971 - 1979)
Donna Jean Godchaux - vocals (1972 - 1979)
Brent Mydland - keyboards, vocals (1979 - 1990)
Vince Welnick - keyboards, vocals (1990 - 1995)
Grateful Dead Band Members (By Year) (1965-1967) Jerry Garcia - guitar, vocals

Bob Weir - guitar, vocals

Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - keyboards, harmonica, vocals, percussion

Phil Lesh - bass guitar, vocals

Bill Kreutzmann - drums


(1967-1968) Jerry Garcia - guitar, vocals

Bob Weir - guitar, vocals

Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - keyboards, harmonica, vocals, percussion

Phil Lesh - bass guitar, vocals

Bill Kreutzmann - drums

Mickey Hart - drums


(1968-1970) Jerry Garcia - guitar, vocals

Bob Weir - guitar, vocals

Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - keyboards, harmonica, vocals, percussion

Tom Constanten - keyboards

Phil Lesh - bass guitar, vocals

Bill Kreutzmann - drums

Mickey Hart - drums


(1970-1971) Jerry Garcia - guitar, vocals

Bob Weir - guitar, vocals

Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - keyboards, harmonica, vocals, percussion

Phil Lesh - bass guitar, vocals

Bill Kreutzmann - drums

Mickey Hart - drums


(1971) Jerry Garcia - guitar, vocals

Bob Weir - guitar, vocals

Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - keyboards, harmonica, vocals, percussion

Phil Lesh - bass guitar, vocals

Bill Kreutzmann - drums


(1971-1972) Jerry Garcia - guitar, vocals

Bob Weir - guitar, vocals

Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - keyboards, harmonica, vocals, percussion

Keith Godchaux - keyboards

Phil Lesh - bass guitar, vocals

Bill Kreutzmann - drums


(1972-1973) Jerry Garcia - guitar, vocals

Bob Weir - guitar, vocals

Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - keyboards, harmonica, vocals, percussion

Keith Godchaux - keyboards

Donna Jean Godchaux - vocals

Phil Lesh - bass guitar, vocals

Bill Kreutzmann - drums


(1973-1975) Jerry Garcia - guitar, vocals

Bob Weir - guitar, vocals

Keith Godchaux - keyboards

Donna Jean Godchaux - vocals

Phil Lesh - bass guitar, vocals

Bill Kreutzmann - drums


(1975-1979) Jerry Garcia - guitar, vocals

Bob Weir - guitar, vocals

Keith Godchaux - keyboards

Donna Jean Godchaux - vocals

Phil Lesh - bass guitar, vocals

Bill Kreutzmann - drums

Mickey Hart - drums


(1979-1990) Jerry Garcia - guitar, vocals

Bob Weir - guitar, vocals

Brent Mydland - keyboards, vocals

Phil Lesh - bass guitar, vocals

Bill Kreutzmann - drums

Mickey Hart - drums


(1990-1995) Jerry Garcia - guitar, vocals

Bob Weir - guitar, vocals

Vince Welnick - keyboards, vocals

Phil Lesh - bass guitar, vocals

Bill Kreutzmann - drums

Mickey Hart - drums


**Grateful Dead Shakedown Street Lyrics**

You tell me this town ain't got no heart. Well, well, well, you can never tell.
The sunny side of the street is dark. Well, well, well, you can never tell.
Maybe that's cause it's midnight, in the dark of the moon besides.

Maybe the dark is from your eyes, Maybe the dark is from your eyes,
Maybe the dark is from your eyes, Maybe the dark is from your eyes,
Maybe the dark is from your eyes, Maybe the dark is from your eyes,
You know you got such dark eyes!

Nothin' shakin' on Shakedown Street. Used to be the heart of town.
Don't tell me this town ain't got no heart. You just gotta poke around.

You think you've seen this town clear through.
Well, well, well, you can never tell.
Nothin' here that could int'rest you. Well, well, well, you can never tell.
It's not because you missed out on the thing that we had to start.

Maybe you had too much too fast. Maybe you had too much too fast.
Maybe you had too much too fast. Maybe you had too much too fast.
Maybe you had too much too fast. Maybe you had too much too fast.
Or just over played your part.

Nothin' shakin' on Shakedown Street. Used to be the heart of town.
Don't tell me this town ain't got no heart. You just gotta poke around.

Since I'm passing your way today. Well, well, well, you can never tell.
I just stopped in 'cause I want to say, Well, well, well, you can never tell.
I recall your darkness when it crackled like a thundercloud.

Don't tell me this town ain't got no heart.
Don't tell me this town ain't got no heart.
Don't tell me this town ain't got no heart.
Don't tell me this town ain't got no heart.
Don't tell me this town ain't got no heart.
Don't tell me this town ain't got no heart.
When I can hear it beat out loud!

Nothin' shakin' on Shakedown Street. Used to be the heart of town.
Don't tell me this town ain't got no heart. You just gotta poke around

John F. Kennedy assassination Mar. 6th, 2006 @ 01:21 pm
00euphoria00
*John F. Kennedy took three shots to the head, while on a visit to Texas. He was shot by a man named Lee Harvey Oswald

The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 PM Central Standard Time (18:30 UTC). Kennedy was fatally wounded by gunshots while riding in a presidential motorcade within Dealey Plaza. He was the fourth U.S. President to be assassinated, and the eighth to die while in office.
Two official investigations have concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald, an employee of the Texas School Book
Depository in Dealey Plaza, was the assassin, with one government investigation concluding that Oswald acted alone and another suggesting that he acted with at least one other person. The assassination is still the subject of widespread speculation, and has spawned a number of conspiracy theories.
Background to the Texas trip

Kennedy had chosen to visit Dallas on 22 November for three main reasons: to help raise more Democratic Party presidential campaign fund contributions in advance of the November 1964 presidential election; to begin his quest for re-election; and as the Kennedy-Johnson ticket had barely won Texas (and had lost Dallas) in 1960, he sought to mend political fences among several leading Texas Democratic Party members

who appeared to be fighting politically amongst themselves.There were concerns about security because U.N. Ambassador Adlai Stevenson had been jeered, jostled, struck by a protest sign, and spat upon in a visit to Dallas on October 24. To prevent a recurrence, Dallas police had prepared the most stringent security precautions in the city's history.

It was planned that Kennedy would travel from the Love Field airport in a motorcade through downtown Dallas (including Dealey Plaza) to give a speech at the Dallas Trade Mart in suburban Dallas. The car in which he was traveling was a 1961 Lincoln Continental, open-top, modified limousine. Riding with Kennedy in the limousine were: his wife, Jacqueline Kennedy; Texas Governor John B. Connally, Sr, and his wife, Nellie; Secret Service agent and White House Detail Team #3 Assistant in Charge, Roy Kellerman; and Secret Service agent and limousine driver Bill Greer. No presidential car with a bulletproof top was yet in service in 1963 (plans for such a top were presented in October 1963; FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover already had three bulletproofed cars.)

In a November 22 Dallas newspaper there appeared a black-bordered, full-page advertisement paid for by Kennedy critics who were associated with the ultraconservative John Birch Society. Throughout Dallas, and especially along the motorcade route, several groups critical of Kennedy expressed their views and handed out flyers. A smattering of handmade protest signs were held aloft by motorcade viewers, but there were no major disturbances.
The assassination itself

The presidential motorcade traveled nearly its entire route without incident, stopping twice so Kennedy could shake hands with some Catholic nuns, then some school children. Shortly before the limousine turned onto Main Street a male ran towards the limousine, but was thrust to the ground by a Secret Service agent and hustled away. Just before 12:30 PM CST (18:30 UTC), Kennedy slowly approached the Texas School Book Depository head-on, then the limousine slowly turned the 120-degrees directly in front of the depository, now only 65 feet (20 meters) away.

When the limousine had passed the depository Kennedy was shot at for an estimated 6 to 9 seconds. During the shooting the limousine is calculated to have slowed from over 13 mph to only 9 mph. The Warren Commission later concluded that one of the three shots likely missed the motorcade, that the first to hit anyone went through Kennedy and likely also caused all of Connally's injuries, and the last to hit anyone opened a fatal wound in Kennedy's head. Nearly all agree that Kennedy was hit with at least two bullets, and was killed when shot in the head.

There was hardly any reaction in the crowd to the supposed first shot, many later saying they thought they had heard a firecracker or backfire. Only after Governor Connally was injured and had screamed, "No, no, no. They are going to kill us all!" did the gravity of the situation become clear to the Secret Service limousine driver, Bill Greer. During the attack Greer had turned very quickly to look behind him and towards the screaming governor and/or President, then turned forward again. He then turned very quickly again rearward (the limousine brake-lights were filmed illuminating at this point), and, besides Jacqueline Kennedy, driver Greer was the only occupant of the limousine actually facing Kennedy when he suffered the fatal head shot.

When Kennedy's head was struck, it moved slightly forward and down 1 to 2 inches (25 to 50 mm). The cause of what happened next is an issue that has kept people investigating the assassination. As the wound to the right side of his skull opened up, his right shoulder twisted forward and slightly upward, then his torso moved quickly backwards and to his left side, until he bounced off the rear seat vertical cushion and slumped lifelessly leftward towards his wife. Only after Kennedy was mortally wounded did the limousine then speed up to exit Dealey Plaza to proceed to Parkland Memorial Hospital.

Others wounded
Texas Governor John Bowden Connally, Sr., riding in the same limousine in front of the president, was also critically injured but survived. His injuries occurred a split second after Kennedy's first injury (probably as a result of the same bullet, although this is still disputed by some). Doctors later stated that when Mrs. Connally pulled the governor onto her lap, the resulting posture helped close his front chest wound (which was causing air to be sucked directly into a collapsed lung). The action helped save his life.

James Tague, a spectator and witness to the assassination, also received a minor gunshot wound to his right facial cheek while standing 270 feet (82 meters) in front of where Kennedy was hit..

Recordings of the assassination
No radio or television stations broadcast the assassination live, as the area through which the motorcade was traveling was not considered important enough to broadcast. KBOX-AM did recreate the sounds of the shooting for an LP record it released with excerpts of news coverage of that day, but it was not an original recording. Except for the media positioned at the rear of the motorcade, most media crews were waiting, in anticipation for Kennedy's arrival, at the Trade Mart.
However, Kennedy's last seconds of life through Dealey Plaza were recorded on silent 8mm film in the 26.6 seconds before, during, and immediately following the assassination by amateur cameraman Abraham Zapruder, in what became known as the Zapruder Film. The 486 frames of this film have been used in many studies, but the film has not been able to settle disputes concerning whether or not Oswald was the sole assassin.
For several minutes before, during, and after the assassination a Dallas police motorcycleman's radio microphone was stuck in the 'transmit' position and was recorded back at the police radio dispatcher's room on a Dictabelt.

Kennedy declared dead
Staff at Parkland Hospital's Trauma Room 1 who treated Kennedy observed that his condition was "moribund", meaning that he had no chance of survival upon arrival at the hospital. At 1:00 p.m., CST (19:00 UTC), after all heart activity had ceased and after a priest administered the last rites, the president was pronounced dead. "We never had any hope of saving his life", one doctor said. The priest who administered the last rites to Kennedy told The New York Times that the President was already dead by the time the priest arrived at the hospital, and he had to draw back a sheet covering the President's face to administer the sacrament of Extreme Unction. Kennedy's death was officially announced some time later, at 1:38 PM CST (19:38 UTC). Governor Connally, meanwhile, was soon taken to emergency surgery where he underwent two operations that day.

A few minutes after 2:00 PM CST (20:00 UTC), and after a ten to fifteen minute confrontation with cursing and weapons-brandishing Secret Service agents, Kennedy's body was taken from Parkland Hospital and driven to Air Force One. The body was removed before undergoing a forensic examination by the Dallas coroner, which was against Texas state law (the murder was a state crime, and occurred under Texas legal jurisdiction).

Lyndon B. Johnson (who had been riding two cars behind Kennedy in the motorcade through Dallas and was not injured, even after Secret Service agents pushed him to the floor of his limousine) was first in line of succession to become President of the United States upon Kennedy's death. Johnson took the oath of office on board Air Force One before it departed Love Field.

The autopsy
After Air Force One landed at Andrews Air Force Base, just outside Washington DC, Kennedy's body was taken to Bethesda Naval Hospital for an autopsy.
The autopsy was conducted by three military doctors and witnessed by over thirty military men. Two FBI men have since revealed that Kennedy had a large wound on the right side of his head, another wound 5.5 inches below his suit coat collar top just to the right of his spine, and a third wound centered in the front of his throat at the bottom edge of his adam's apple. (The Warren Commission report contains this same information.)

Several photos and x-rays were captured during the autopsy (several of which have disappeared from the official record). The autopsy photos are graphic. If you wish to view them, along with the skull x-rays, and medical drawings prepared by the Assassination Records and Review Board when it took testimonies from the Parkland Hospital medical witnesses, they are available here and here

Reaction to the assassination
The first hour after the shooting, before Kennedy's death was announced, was a time of great confusion. As it took place during the Cold War, some people at first wondered if the shooting were not part of a larger attack upon the USA, and there was concern about Vice-President Johnson's safety. People began to huddle around radios and TV's for the latest bulletins.

The news of Kennedy's death by assassination shocked the world. In cities around the world, people wept openly. People clustered in department stores to catch TV coverage, and others prayed. Motor traffic in some areas came to a halt as the news of Kennedy's death spread literally from car to car. Schools across the USA and Canada dismissed students early. A misguided fury against Texas and Texans was reported from some individuals. All three TV networks cancelled regular programs scheduled for the next three days in order to provide non-stop news coverage of the assassination.
Memorial services for Kennedy were held worldwide. The US Government declared a day of national mourning and sorrow for the day of state funeral, Monday, November 25. Many other countries did the same.

Funeral
After the autopsy at Bethesda Naval Hospital, Kennedy's body was prepared for burial and then brought back to the White House and placed in the East Room for 24 hours. The Sunday following the assassination, his flag-draped coffin was moved to the Capitol for public viewing. Throughout the day and night, hundreds of thousands lined up to view the guarded casket.
Representatives from over 90 countries, including the Soviet Union, attended the funeral on November 25 (which was his son's third birthday). After the service, the casket was taken by caisson to Arlington National Cemetery for burial.

Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested eighty minutes after the assassination for killing Dallas Police Officer J. D. Tippit. He was charged with murdering Kennedy late that evening. Two days later while in police custody, Oswald was shot and killed by Jack Ruby.
Official investigations
Dallas Police

After arresting Oswald and collecting physical evidence at the crime scenes, at 10:30 PM CST 22 November (04:30 UTC 23 November) Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry was ordered by, in his words, "people in Washington" to send all of the physical evidence found, but not Oswald, to FBI headquarters.
FBI investigation

The FBI was the first authority to complete an official investigation. On December 9, 1963, only 17 days after the assassination, the FBI report was issued and given to the Warren Commission while the FBI was still the primary investigating authority for the commission. The FBI stated that only three bullets were fired during the assassination; that the first shot hit President Kennedy, the second shot hit Governor Connally, and the third shot hit Kennedy in the head, killing him. The FBI stated that Lee Harvey Oswald fired all three shots.

The Warren Commission
The first official investigation of the assassination was established by President Lyndon B. Johnson on November 29 1963, a week after the assassination. The commission was headed by Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States and became universally (but unofficially) known as the Warren Commission.
In late September 1964, after a 10 month investigation, the Warren Commission Report was published. The Commission reported that it could not find any persuasive evidence of a domestic or foreign conspiracy involving any other person(s), group(s), or country(ies), and that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone. The theory that Oswald acted alone is also informally called the Lone Gunman Theory.
The commission also concluded that only three bullets were fired during the assassination, and that Lee Harvey Oswald fired all three bullets from the Texas School Book Depository behind the motorcade. The

commission's determination was that:
• one shot likely missed the motorcade (it could not determine which of the three),
• the first shot to hit anyone struck Kennedy in the upper back, exited near the front of his neck and likely continued on to cause all of Governor Connally's numerous injuries, and
• the last shot to hit anyone struck Kennedy in the head, fatally wounding him.
It noted that three empty shells were found in the sixth floor in the book depository, and a rifle identified as the one used in the shooting was found hidden nearby. Rather than accept that more than two shots caused injuries, the Commission offered as a likely explanation that the same bullet that wounded Kennedy also caused all of Governor Connally's wounds. This single bullet then backed out of Connally's left thigh and was found in nearly pristine condition. This theory has become known as the "Single Bullet Theory" or, the "Magic" Bullet Theory (as it is commonly referred to by its critics and detractors). Some ballistic evidence has suggested that such a bullet trajectory was possible, but this point is a source of much debate.

The Commission also criticized weaknesses in security, which has resulted in greatly increased security whenever the President travels. The supporting documents for the Warren Commission Report are not all due to be released until 2017.
The commission's findings have not gained majority acceptance from the general public in the USA, and many theories exist that conflict with its findings. Currently, there is no single theory with which a large majority of people would agree. However, most polls show that most people do not agree with the Warren Commission's finding that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone.
The House Select Committee on Assassinations
An official investigation by the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA), conducted from 1976 to 1979, concluded

that the scientific acoustical evidence established a high probability that two gunmen fired at President John F. Kennedy. Other scientific evidence did not preclude the possibility of two gunmen firing at the President, but it did negate some specific conspiracy allegations.
Their conclusion was that four bullets were fired during the assassination and that President Kennedy was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy. The HSCA concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald fired the first, second, and fourth bullets, and that (based on the acoustic evidence) there was a high probability that an unnamed second assassin fired the third bullet (but missed) from President Kennedy's right front from a location concealed behind the Grassy Knoll picket fence, 9 feet (approximately 3 meters) to the west of the picket fence east corner (exactly where an image is seen in the Moorman #5 polaroid photo captured at Zf-315 to 316, but not seen seconds later). The HSCA's test firings within Dealey Plaza in 1978 also acoustically matched this same Grassy Knoll fence location 9' to the west of the picket fence east corner where several witnesses claimed to observe gunsmoke.
Summary of other evidence

Shot sequencing and origins
There was a clear consensus among the witnesses as to the number of shots: over 90% thought there were three or fewer shots. More witnesses thought the final two shots were bunched together than thought the shots were evenly spaced, or that the first two were bunched.
Of the witnesses who gave some testimony as to the source of the shots, 35 thought the shots came from the direction of the Grassy Knoll, 56 thought the shots came from the direction of the School Book Depository, eight thought the shots came from an entirely different location (including two who thought the shots came from inside the limo). Only five witnesses thought the shots came from two different locations.

Witnesses
On November 22, and in the months and years following the assassination, many witnesses in Dealey Plaza at the time of the assassination have come forward or have been identified, and have stated their observations about what happened during the crucial seconds of the attack. Many witnesses were known to investigators, but some were never called by the investigators to describe what they observed. Many witnesses who were photographed at the scene (including several photographers and film-makers) are still unknown and have chosen to not come forward and/or have died.

In many respects, the details of the events described by the identified witnesses match, but there are also conflicting details between information described by the witnesses. Some witnesses have also described details that no other witness has yet described. Among the important witness considerations were:
• The reactions to the gunshots of all limousine occupants relative to each other and relative to what each limousine occupant testified they saw, heard, and felt during the assassination.
• How many muzzle blasts a witness remembered hearing.
• The origin of the muzzle blasts a witness remembered hearing.
• The identities of two armed men and at least one other man seen on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository.
• The identities of other potential witnesses, photographers, filmers and/or other located assassins and/or co-conspirators.

Conspiracy theories
Many people dispute the claim that Oswald was an assassin, or the sole assassin. Investigations, scientific testing, and re-creations of the circumstances of Kennedy's death have not, in the American public's view, settled the question of who plotted to kill him. A 2003 ABC TV News poll showed that only 32 percent (plus or minus 3 percent) of Americans who expressed a view believe that Oswald acted alone in the Kennedy assassination http://abcnews.go.com/images/pdf/937a1JFKAssassination.pdf; a Discovery Channel poll revealed that only 21% believe Oswald acted alone. http://poll.discovery.com/servlet/viewsflash?jfk=6&cmd=tally&pollid=jfk&results=data%2Fdsc%2Fpackage%2Fjfk.results.html&submit.x=51&submit.y=6; a History Channel poll gave a figure of 17%. http://www.historychannel.com/jfk/jfk_poll_results.jsp

Unreleased documents
Until 2017, tens of thousands of pages of documents will remain classified and sealed, away from the public's availability and research, including:
• 3+% of all Warren Commission documents
• 21+% of the House Select Committee on Assassinations documents
• An undeterminable percentage of CIA, FBI, Secret Service, National Security Agency, State Department, US Marine Corps, Naval Investigative Service, Defense Investigative Service, and many other US
government documents.

Additionally, several key pieces of evidence and documentation are known to have been cleaned or destroyed, or are missing from the original chain of evidence (e.g., limousine cleaned out at hospital, Connally's suit dry-cleaned, Oswald's military file destroyed, President Kennedy's brain not accounted for, Connally's Stetson hat and shirt sleeve gold cufflink missing, forensic autopsy photos missing, etc.)
All documents related to the assassination that have not been destroyed are scheduled, according to the 1992 Assassinations Records Review Board laws, to be released to the public by 2017. Just before the 1964 presidential election, President Johnson ordered the Warren Commission documentations to be sealed against public availability until 2039.
On May 19, 2044, the 50th anniversary of the death of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, if her last child has died, the Kennedy library will release to the public a 500-page transcript of an oral history about John F Kennedy given by Mrs. Kennedy before her death in 1994.

The attempted assassination of General Walker
General Edwin Walker was an anti-communist, segregationist, and member of the John Birch Society. Walker was commanding officer of the 24th Army Division under NATO, but was relieved of this post by JFK in 1961 for distributing right-wing literature to his troops. Walker resigned from the Army and returned to his native Texas. He ran in the six-man Democratic gubernatorial primary in 1962 but lost to John Connally, who went on to win the race. When Walker came to Oswald's attention in February 1963, the general was making front page news by joining forces with an evangelist in an anti-communist tour called "Operation Midnight Ride".

Oswald began to put Walker under surveillance, taking pictures of Walker's home and nearby railroad tracks, perhaps his planned escape route, using the same camera used by Marina to take the famous backyard poses (see below). Oswald mail-ordered a rifle (see below) using his alias Hidell (he had already ordered a pistol in January). He planned the assassination on April 10, ten days after he was fired from Jaggars-Chiles-Stovall. He chose a Wednesday evening because the neighborhood would be relatively crowded because of services in a church adjacent to Walker's home; he would not stand out and could mingle with the crowds if necessary to make his escape. He left a note in Russian for Marina with instructions should he be caught. Walker was sitting at a desk in his dining room when Oswald fired at him from less than a hundred feet (30 m) away. Walker survived only because the bullet struck the wooden frame of the window, deflecting its path, though he was injured in the forearm by fragments.
At the time, authorities had no idea who attempted to kill Walker. Marina saw Oswald burn most of his plans in the bathtub, though she hid the note he left her in a cookbook, intending to bring it to the police should Oswald again attempt to kill Walker or anyone else. Oswald's involvement was unknown until the note and some of the photos were found by the authorities following the assassination of JFK. The bullet was too badly damaged to run conclusive ballistics tests, though neutron activation tests later proved that the bullet was from the same manufacturer as the one that killed Kennedy.
The rifle and Oswald’s marksmanship

In March 1963, Oswald (using the name of his ex-boss in the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, Alek J. Hidell) allegedly purchased a rifle and handgun that were later linked by investigators to the events of November 22, 1963.
Rifle
6.5x52mm Mannlicher-Carcano M91/38 bolt-action rifle
Serial number C2766
Western Cartridge 160 grain (10.37 g) ammunition
Side-mounted Ordnance Optics 4 x 18 scope
Handgun
0.38 Special Smith & Wesson Victory revolver 2.25 in (57 mm) barrel
Serial number V510210
Converted from 0.38 S&W, shortened from 5 in (127 mm) barrel

The rifle was kept in the garage of family friends, Michael and Ruth Paine, at whose home Marina Oswald was living at the time. See Warren Commission report describing testimony of Michael R. Paine and his wife, Ruth Paine. http://www.jfkassassination.net/russ/testimony/paine_m1.htm
During his military career Oswald scored as a "sharpshooter" in December 1956, on two occasions achieving 48 and 49 out of 50 during rapid fire at a 200 yard (183 m) distant target, but failed to attain a marksmanship badge. Skeptics doubt the likelihood of Oswald being able to fire shots so accurately and rapidly with the weapon and from the position he was theorized to use to kill Kennedy moving at 9 to 12 mph (14 to 19 km/h). They argue that expert marksmen could not accomplish Oswald's alleged feat in their first try during the re-enactments by the Warren Commission (1964) and CBS (1967).
In those tests, the marksmen were attempting to hit the target three times within 4.5 seconds, which was the FBI's technical estimate of the minimum time in which three shots could be aimed and fired with that specific model of rifle. The use of this number has been heavily disputed, with modern analysis of a digitally enhanced Zapruder film suggesting that the first and final shots may have come as much as 8.4 seconds apart.

Even so, many of CBS's 11 volunteer marksmen, who (unlike Oswald) had had no prior experience with a Mannlicher-Carcano, were able to hit the target three times in well under the time allotted.
The assassination of JFK

According to the Warren Commission report on the John F. Kennedy assassination, Oswald shot Kennedy from a window on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository, where he was employed during the Christmas rush, as the President's motorcade passed through Dallas's Dealey Plaza at 12:30 pm on November 22. Texas Governor John Connally was wounded at the same time, along with an assassination witness, James Tague, who was standing some 270 feet (82 m) in front of the presidential limousine. However, critics of this account assert that photographic and filmed evidence indicate that there were at least one or two shooters in an area known as the grassy knoll behind a picket fence atop a small sloping hill in Dealey Plaza, to President Kennedy's right-front. This is because from the 8mm films, it appears that the direction of President Kennedy's body was in a decidedly back and left direction after the shot. However, if the films are viewed frame by frame, it can be seen that there is a sudden, violent forward-motion of the president, inconsistent with anything but a sudden stop of the limo, (which didn't happen) or a rear-ward shot, as from the book depository. Several frames of video after the violent forward motion there is a second, backward motion, consistent (and indeed could only occur from) a rear shot. This oddity is attributed to the spin's characteristics during such an event. A large portion of brain matter was also projected forward, but some protest that this is not evidence of a rear shot by Oswald.

Oswald's flight and the murder of J. D. Tippit
Oswald immediately headed for the back staircase, disposing of the rifle behind some boxes. On the second floor, he encountered Marrion Baker, a policeman who had driven his motorcycle to the door of the Depository and sprinted up the stairs to search for the shooter. With him was Oswald's boss, Roy Truly, who identified Oswald as an employee, so Baker let Oswald pass. Oswald bought a Coke from a vending machine in the second floor lunchroom, crossed the floor to the front staircase, then descended and left the building through the front entrance on Elm Street.

At about 12:40 PM (CST), Oswald boarded a bus by pounding on the door in the middle of the block, but when traffic slowed the bus to a halt, he requested a bus transfer from the driver. He took a cab to a point a few blocks away from his rooming house, then walked there to retrieve his pistol and beige jacket. He lingered at a bus stop across the street then began walking. His ultimate destination is unknown, but before he was stopped, he had walked almost a mile, and was only four blocks away from a 1:40 pm bus which could have connected him with a Greyhound headed south for Mexico.
Patrolman J. D. Tippit had undoubtedly heard the general description of the shooter, based on the statement Howard Brennan, who had seen Oswald in the window of the Depository from across the street, gave to police and was broadcast at 12:45. Tippit spotted Oswald about 1:15 PM (CST) near the corner of Patton Avenue and Tenth Street and pulled up next to him to talk to him through his car window. Tippit then got out of his car and Oswald pulled his .38 and shot him, killing him instantly. Thirteen people either witnessed the shooting or identified Oswald fleeing the scene.

Oswald allegedly emptied his revolver and reloaded, leaving the shells behind. He also left his jacket in the parking lot of a nearby gas station. He ducked into the entrance way of a shoe store on Jefferson Street to avoid some passing police cars, then dashed into the nearby Texas Theater without paying. The shoe store’s manager followed him and alerted the ticket clerk, who phoned police. The police quickly arrived and poured into the theater, which was playing War Is Hell starring Audie Murphy. Officer M.N. McDonald saw Oswald sitting near the back and ordered him to stand. Oswald punched McDonald and drew his gun, but McDonald tackled Oswald before he could fire. Police arrested him and took him away, past a crowd who had gathered outside the theater and shouted for Oswald’s death.
Oswald was arrested at the Texas Theater in the Dallas neighborhood of Oak Cliff at about 1:50 pm, first as a suspect in the shooting of Tippit and was then charged with assassinating Kennedy, even though the arraignment hearing on the Kennedy charge was abruptly interrupted and never did get finished, so he was never really officially charged with the assassination of President Kennedy.
While in custody, Oswald denied the shooting, telling reporters "I didn't shoot anyone" and "I'm just a patsy".

Oswald's death
On November 24, at 11:21 am CST, after 15 hours of undocumented interrogations, while he was being transferred via car to a nearby jail, Oswald was shot and killed in the basement of the Dallas police jail, in front of live TV cameras, by Jack Ruby a Dallas nightclub owner with friends and acquaintances in the U.S. mafia.

Millions watched the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald on television. It was the first time in TV history that a murder was captured and shown publicly live, but it was shown live on only one network, NBC.
The route that Ruby took to get down into the basement of the Dallas jail has been disputed, although Ruby was very specific about using the entrance ramp (and his access to the jail on other days). This was recorded during the polygraph test Ruby insisted on taking and documented in a Warren report appendix. One witness, a former policeman named Napoleon Daniels, stated that he had seen Ruby use the ramp. The use of a route through the jail building suggests to some that Ruby had received help from authorities inside the building, however, many journalists entered the building without having their credentials checked, and Ruby can be seen on film also inside the building on the previous Friday night, apparently posing as a reporter.

One of the several questions Ruby showed signs of lying about (despite the polygraph operator having turned-down the sensitivity mechanism of the polygraph machine) was when Ruby answered "no" to if he ever knew Oswald. In the preparations to his trial Ruby later stated that he killed Oswald on the spur of the moment to spare Jacqueline Kennedy the stress and embarrassment a trial would cause her, and during the trial his defense team suggested that Ruby’s actions were related to an epileptic event brought on by the photographers camera flashbulbs and movie camera lights. Immediately after his arrest however, Ruby expressed to Dallas policemen that the American people would see him "as a hero" and/or that the murder was proof that "Jews have guts."
Oswald’s grave is in Rose Hill Memorial Burial Park in Fort Worth. The November 25th burial and funeral were paid for by Oswald’s brother Robert. There was no religious service and reporters acted as pallbearers. When his mother died in 1981, she was buried next to Oswald with no headstone. Originally, his headstone read "Lee Harvey Oswald", but this was stolen and replaced with a marker which simply reads "Oswald". Immediately adjacent is a marker which reads "Nick Beef", the stage name of a local comedian who purchased the site and used that fact in his act. Oswald's wife, Marina, married Kenneth Porter in 1965 and her daughters took Porter's last name.
Investigations
The Warren Commission created by President Lyndon B. Johnson on November 29, 1963 to investigate the assassination, concluded that Oswald did assassinate Kennedy and that he acted alone (also known as the Lone gunman theory). The proceedings of the commission were secret, and 3+% of its files have yet to be released to the public, further fuelling speculation about the assassination. A later investigation by the House Select Committee on Assassinations, during the late 1970s, concluded that President Kennedy "most-likely was assassinated as the result of a conspiracy."
The 1981 exhumation
In October 1981, Oswald was subject to an exhumation undertaken by British writer Michael Eddowes (with Marina Oswald Porter's support). They sought to prove or disprove a thesis developed in a 1975 book, Khrushchev Killed Kennedy (The book was republished in 1976 in Britain as November 22: How They Killed Kennedy and in America a year later as The Oswald File.) The thesis of the trio of books was that when Oswald went to the Soviet Union, he was swapped with a Soviet clone. Eddowes's support for his thesis was a claim that the corpse buried in 1963 in the Shannon Rose Hill Memorial Park cemetery in Fort Worth, Texas did not have a scar that resulted from surgery conducted on Oswald years before. The final results of the exhumation found that the corpse they studied was Oswald's. The finding was based on dental records.
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» Hippies, Yuppies, & Yippies
**HIPPIES**

*Hippie (often spelled hippy, especially outside the United States) is a term originally used to describe some of the rebellious youth of the 1960s and 1970s. The word hippie was popularized by the late San Francisco Chronicle columnist Herb Caen. Caen's articles were always written with the help of notes and letters from his San Francisco fan base. He is also credited as among the first to include the words beatnik and yuppie in his column. Though not a cohesive cultural movement with manifestos and leaders, some hippies expressed their desire for change with communal or nomadic lifestyles, by renouncing corporate influence, consumerism and the Vietnam War, by embracing aspects of non-Judeo-Christian religious cultures (including much Eastern philosophy), and with criticism of Western middle class values.
Such criticism included the views that the government was paternalistic, corporate industry was greedy and domineering, traditional morals were askew, and war was inhumane. Hippies referred to the structures and institutions that they opposed as The Establishment.
Hippies of the time were interested in "tuning in to their inner minds" (with or without drugs or mystic meditation) and improving mainstream society. Influence in hippie culture is sometimes akin to Eastern religions, philosophies, and associations. Although mainstream culture is not associated with hippie ways, modern hippies nonetheless exist as made apparent on sites such as Hippyland and events such as Rainbow Family Gatherings.

**Origins**
In the 1940s and 1950s the term hipster came into usage by the American Beat generation to describe jazz and swing music performers, and evolved to also describe the bohemian-like counterculture that formed around the art of the time.
The 1960s hippie culture evolved from the beat culture, and was greatly influenced by changing music style and the creation of rock & roll from jazz.
The first use of the word hippie on television was on WNBC TV Channel 4 in New York City at the opening of the New York World's Fair in 1964. Some young Anti-Vietnam War protesters, wearing t-shirts, denim jeans and with long hair like The Beatles, were called hippies by NYPD and reporters. The police swung their batons at them to chase them off the escalators and they fought back.
On the east coast of the U.S., in Greenwich Village, young counterculture advocates were called, and referred to themselves as, hips. At that time, to be hip meant to be "in the know." Young disaffected youth from the suburbs of New York City flocked to the Village in their oldest clothes to fit into the counterculture movement, the coffee houses, etc. Radio station WBAI was the first media outlet to use the term hippie to describe the poorly-dressed middle class youths as a pejorative term originally meaning "hip wannabes."
September 6, 1965 marked the first San Francisco newspaper story, by Michael Fellon, that used the word "hippie" to refer to younger bohemians. The name did not catch on in mass media until almost two years later.

Hippie action in the San Francisco area, particularly the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood, centered around the Diggers, a guerrilla street theater group that combined spontaneous street theater, anarchistic action, and art happenings in their agenda of creating a "free city." The San Francisco Diggers grew from two radical traditions thriving in the area in the mid-1960s: the bohemian/underground art/theater scene, and the new left/civil rights/peace movement.
Los Angeles also had a vibrant hippie scene in the mid-1960s, arising from a combination of the L.A. beat scene centered around Venice and its coffeehouses, which spawned the Doors, and the Sunset Strip, the quintessential L.A. hippie gathering area, with its seminal rock clubs, such as the Whisky-a-Go-Go, and the Troubadour just down the hill. The Strip was also the location of the actual protest referred to in the Buffalo Springfield's early hippie anthem of 1966, For What It's Worth.
Summer 1967 in Haight-Ashbury became known as the "Summer of Love" as young people gathered (75,000 by police estimates) and shared the new culture of music, drugs, and rebellion. The outdoor Human Be-In concert started the Summer of Love. However, the Diggers felt co-opted by media attention and interpretation, and at the end of the summer held a Death of Hippie parade.
The hippie movement reached its height in the late 1960s, as evidenced by the July 7, 1967 issue of TIME magazine, which had for its cover story: The Hippies: The Philosophy of a Subculture.
Because many hippies wore flowers in their hair and distributed flowers to passersby, they earned the alternative name, "flower children."

**Politics**
Hippies often participated in peace movements with Liberal views, including peace marches such as the USA marches on Washington and civil rights marches, and anti-Vietnam War demonstrations including the 1968 Democratic Convention. Yippies represented a highly politically active sub-group.
By today's standards, they're prone to hedonism and pacifism. The culture has also rapidly embraced postfeminist and mostly postmodern principles in wake of the twenty-first century.
Though hippies embodied a counterculture movement, early hippies were not particularly tolerant of homosexuality. Acceptance of homosexuality grew with the culture, and by today's standards such issues are non-existent.
Hippie political expression also took the form of "dropping out" of society to implement the changes they sought. The back to the land movement, cooperative business enterprises, alternative energy, free press movement, and organic farming embraced by hippies were all political in nature at their start.

**Drugs**
Driven by the appeal of the Sixties "psychedelics guru," Harvard professor Timothy Leary, who advocated use of these drugs as a form of mind expansion, many hippies participated in recreational drug use, particularly marijuana (see cannabis, cannabis (drug), and hashish) and hallucinogens such as LSD (see both psychedelic and psychedelic drug) and psilocybin (see Psychedelic mushroom). Some hippies prize marijuana for its iconoclastic, illicit nature, as well as for its psycho pharmaceutical effects. Although some hippies did not use drugs, drug use is a trait often ascribed to hippies. Some hippies used drugs to express their disaffection with societal norms.

**Legacy**
By 1970, much of the hippie style, but little of its substance, had passed into mainstream culture. The media lost interest in the subculture as it went out of fashion with younger people and even became the target of their ridicule with the advent of punk rock. However, many hippies made, and continue to maintain, long-term commitments to the lifestyle. As of 2005, hippies are found in bohemian enclaves around the world or as wanderers following the bands they love. Since the early 1970s, many rendezvous annually at Rainbow Gatherings. Others gather at meetings and festivals, such as the Peace Fest.
In the United Kingdom, the New age travellers movement revived many hippie traditions into the 1980s and 1990s.

Of paramount importance to the hippy drug culture was the emergence on Bob Cox onto the scene in the mid to late 1960s. Cox was famous for his endless experimentation and determination to "contstantly be in another state of mind." He pioneered the use of several now popular hallucenogenics and is also rumoured to have been involved in several prominent bomb threats throughout the period.

**Characteristics**

•Longer hair and fuller beards than current fashion. Many white people with curly or natty hair associated with the 1960s counterculture and American Civil Rights Movement wore their hair in afros in earnest imitation of African Americans. Some people find the longer hair offensive. They believe it is unhygienic, frivolous, or feminine; or offensive because it violates traditional cultural expectations. (When Hair moved from off-Broadway to a large Broadway theater in 1968, the hippie counterculture was already diversifying and fleeing traditional urban settings.)

•Bright-colored clothing, and unusual styles, such as bell-bottom pants, tie-dyed garments, dashikis, peasant blouses, and non-Western inspired clothing. Much of their clothing was self-made in protest of Western consumer culture. Head scarves and long beaded necklaces, for both men and women, were also fashionable.

•Listening to certain styles of music; psychedelic rock such as Jimi Hendrix and Jefferson Airplane, blues such as Janis Joplin, traditional Eastern music, particularly from India, or rock music with eastern influences, soulful funk like Sly & The Family Stone, jam bands like the Grateful Dead and folk Music Bob Dylan. Neo-Hippies frequently participate in the bluegrass music scene.

•Performing music casually, often with guitars, in friends' homes, or for free at outdoor fairs such as San Francisco's legendary "Human Be-In" of January 1967, the Woodstock Festival of August 15, 16, 17, 1969, or contemporary gatherings like Burning Man festival.

•The VW Bus is usually known as the counterculture/hippie symbol; a peace symbol is usually painted where the VW logo would otherwise be seen. Because of its low cost (during the late sixties), it was revered as a utilitarian vehicle. A majority of buses were usually repainted with graphics and/or custom paint jobs - this was the predecessor of the modern-day art car. Although not as common they did also use the Chevrolet Corvair cars and vans.

•Free love (See also: Sexual revolution).

•Communal living

•Use of incense

•Drug use

**Pejorative connotations**
The term hippie has also been used in a derogatory sense to describe long-haired unkempt drug users. Among those of the Beat Generation, the flood of youngsters adopting Beatnik sensibilities appeared to be cheap, mass-produced imitations of the Beatnik artist community. By Beat standards, these newcomers were not "clever" enough to really be "hip". On the other hand, conservatives used the term hippie as an insult toward young adults who had leftist, liberal, and other progressive outlooks on life. Band members like the Beatles defied and baffled adults in adopting long, shaggy hair. Such showmanship of apathy to appearance is but one aspect hippies encompass in defiance of preconceived adult establishments.
Today, the term hippie is often used by more conservative or mainstream people with the pejorative connotation of irresponsibility and participation in recreational drug use. Such as its use by the cartoon character Eric Cartman in the South Park series in the episode "Die Hippie, Die" , where Hippies took over the town.

Inadvertently, modern hippies prefer the term/spelling hippy, in opposition to the unfounded idealism first promoted in hippie culture. Hippy culture in its current construct generally has the views/tendencies of old hippies, with the knowledge that ultimate idealism is, to be blunt, stupid.
Many hippies of today have made use of the World Wide Web and can be found on virtual communities such Hippyland in the US or UKhippy in the UK. Also, there are many events, festivals and parties which promote hippy-like lifestyles and values.
Some critics of the hippy movement claim that people become hippies as a result of sociopathy and/or inferiority complex, but these claims have not been substantiated by psychological studies.

**Neo-Hippies**
Neo-hippies or simply hippies are 21st century people who still believe in the hippy philosophy developed in the 1960s. Dreadlocks — especially with beads sewn into them — remain popular amongst neo-hippies, however the modern hippy movement is more about lifestyle and not about a fashion statement.
Much like their 1960s counterparts, the peace and justice theme continues, especially with anti-war demonstrations in the wake of the Iraq War and repealing of the Patriot Acts I and II.
In the US, the art car has almost replaced the VW Bus since these have become sought-after by enthusiasts, however a few hippy-era buses remain. In the UK and Europe, there New age travellers in converted buses and trucks, who are generally referred to by others as "hippies", although most of them will strenuously reject this and other labels. An interest in environmentally-friendly technology like hybrid vehicles (not to include biodiesel and SVO/WVO technology) have also gained massive acceptance and promotion.
Vegetarianism or veganism, as well as beliefs in animal rights, are also evident.
Drug usage is just as accepted as in the "original" hippy days, although it is not considered necessary to take drugs in order to be part of the lifestyle. Some modern hippies frown upon excessive drug use because of lessons learned from the past.

**YUPPIE**

Yuppie, short for "Young Urban Professional," describes a demographic of people comprising baby boomers as well as people in their late twenties and early thirties. Yuppies tend to hold jobs in the professional sector, with incomes that place them in the upper-middle economic class. The term "Yuppie" emerged in the early 1980s as an ironic echo of the earlier "hippies" and "yippies" who had rejected the materialistically oriented values of the business community. Although the original yuppies were "young," the term now applies as well to people of middle age.
Syndicated newspaper columnist Bob Greene is generally credited with having stolen the term "Yuppie" in one of his columns in the early 1980s, plagiarizing Alice Kahn who famously wrote about them in the East Bay Express in 1982, but the first known citation of the word is in a May 13, 1981 article entitled "Chicago: City on the brink" by R. C. Longworth in the Chicago Tribune.
The term is often used pejoratively, with an emphasis on the connotations of "yuppies" as selfish and superficial. In the novel A Very British Coup, the Prime Minister Harry Perkins comments on the greed of Thatcherite yuppies in a speech.

**The yuppie stereotype**
The term "yuppies" has come to refer to more than just a demographic profile: it is also a psychographic and geographic profile. It describes a set of behavioral and psychographic attributes that have come to constitute a commonly believed stereotype.
According to the stereotype, yuppies are more conservative than the hippies who preceded them (in reality, many of the early yuppies were actually hippies in the 1960s and early 1970s). Dispensing with the social causes of the hippies (who themselves shed traditional values), yuppies tend to be "work hard / play hard" types. A cinematic example is Gordon Gekko in the movie Wall Street.
In accordance with their conservatism, yuppies are more likely to support the Republican Party.
Yuppies tend to value material goods (especially trendy new things) and are also supposed to have "bad taste" in that they buy expensive things merely for the sake of buying expensive things. An example would be the "yuppie" stereotype for those with a love for microbrewed and imported beer. In particular this can apply to their stocks, luxury automobiles (e.g. BMW, Lexus, Mercedes-Benz), sport utility vehicles, development houses, and technological gadgets, particularly cell phones.
The yuppies' fast-paced pursuit of material goods can have unintended consequences. Usually in a hurry, "yuppies" may seek convenience goods and services. Being "time poor," their family relations can become difficult to sustain. Maintaining their way of life is mentally exhausting. Sometimes, they will move every few years to where their job goes, straining their family. This fast-paced lifestyle has been termed a rat race. Many of these yuppies are said to be "credit posers" and undertake a large amount of debt to maintain their outward image. To an extent, some of them essentially live "paycheck-to-paycheck" -- the paychecks are simply larger.
Heavily influenced by a competitive corporate environment, "yuppies" often value those behaviors that they have found useful in gaining upward mobility and hence income and status. They often take their corporate values home to their spouses and children.
According to the stereotype, there is a certain air of informality about them, yet an entire code of unwritten etiquette can govern their activities from golf and tennis to luncheons at trendy cocktail bars.
One of the better-known and more notorious depictions of yuppies was found in Bret Easton Ellis' controversial 1991 novel, American Psycho, which satirically lambasted the values of yuppies with a hyper-materialistic, murderously self-absorbed protagonist.
Yuppies tend to be associated with city or suburban dwellers. The term is commonly used by traditional country folk and good ol' boys in reference to people who live the stereotypical urban or suburban lifestyle. Entire city districts have been associated with the yuppie phenomenon; in the 1980s and 1990s, the redeveloped Docklands of London became widely regarded as a (very upmarket) "yuppie slum"; San Francisco's formerly working-class Noe Valley neighborhood is similarly afflicted with yuppie-sm, not to mention Houston's Midtown and Galleria districts (Houston's Midtown was once dominated by Vietnamese-run businesses until lofts were built in the mid-1990s). Similar accusations have been levelled against expensively renovated areas - usually low-rent communities - in a number of other cities around the world.
Yuppies are sometimes stereotyped as wearing white shirts, blue ties, and black pants

**Related terms**

•A Yumpie is a "young upwardly-mobile person". While this term is far less common, many confuse the derivation for Yuppie with that of Yumpie, and the two express broadly the same connotations anyway. Some sources (textbooks, even) state that yuppie actually stands for "young upwardly-mobile person".

•Yippie (not to be confused with the political activist Yippies of the 1960s and 70s) is sometimes used to refer to a person with hippie values and attire but with yuppy consumer habits.

•Buppie or Nuppie is sometimes used to refer to an African-American yuppie. This usually denotes a lack of association with larger African-American culture in favor of corporate or materialistic values.

•Guppie is a gay yuppie. As with Buppie, this usually denotes a lack of association with a subculture.

•Yuppify and yuppification are a slang terms used in place of the words gentrify and gentrification but with even more negative connotations.

•A yuppie slum or yuppie ghetto refers to any neighborhood that is largely populated by a young well-off crowd, but often has other connotations of gentrification and rising rental and dining costs in a previously low-rent neighborhood.

•A yuppie food stamp is a crisp US$20 note issued by an ATM.

•DINKs (also DINKY in the UK) are well-off couples who often have much in common with "yuppies". The label is an acronym for Dual Income, No Kids [Yet].

•SITCOMs are former yuppies or DINKs. The label is an acronym for Single Income Two Children Oppressive Mortgage.

•Yuppicide is the killing of Yuppies, and vehicular yuppicide is the act of wrecking a yuppie's BMW. A New York-based hardcore/punk band in the 1990s called themselves Yuppicide.

•Yuppie Flu is a term formerly applied to Chronic fatigue syndrome, before that condition's general acceptance as a genuine medical problem.

•Organic Yuppies is a term used in the UK for yuppies and middle class thirtysomethings obsessed with food and wine.

•David Brooks characterized yuppies as bourgeois bohemians, or Bobos, in his book Bobos in Paradise

•Kill a Yuppie A graffitti tag term derived from Somerville, Massachusetts.

•A variation, yuffie, is a young-urban-failure, or more generally a failed yuppie.

•Boughie (pronounced Bōō-jee—an abbreviation of the word Bourgeois), is a derogatory term originated in African American Vernacular English, and used to describe an African-American of lower-class origins, who has elevated into societies "upper-crust", and has forgotten (or, has chosen to forget) about their true origins. Boughie's tend to have fancy or refined tastes, style, and manner in the interest of appearing more cultured or sophisticated than their ordinary upbringing would suggest. The term is used prominently by many black stand-up comedians, in urban films like Boyz N the Hood (1991), and in television sitcoms such as The Jeffersons.



**YIPPYS**

The Youth International Party (whose adherents were known as Yippies, a variant on "Hippies" which is also used today to designate the surviving circle of activists who came out of the now-defunct YIP) was a highly theatrical political party established in the United States in 1967. An offshoot of the free speech and anti-war movements of the 1960s, Yippies presented a youth-oriented countercultural alternative to the strait-laced earnestness often associated with representatives of those movements. They employed media-savvy gestures—such as advancing a pig ("Pigasus the Immortal") as candidate for President in 1968—to mock the social status quo.
The Yippies had no formal membership or hierarchy: Abbie Hoffman, Anita Hoffman, and Paul Krassner were among the founders of the Yippies (according to his own account, Krassner coined the name). Other activists associated with the Yippies include Jerry Rubin, Stewart Albert, Dick Gregory, Ed Sanders, Phil Ochs, and David Peel.
Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin became the most famous Yippies—and bestselling authors—in part due to publicity surrounding the five-month Chicago Seven Conspiracy trial of 1969. Hoffman and Rubin were arguably the most colorful of the seven defendants accused of criminal conspiracy and inciting to riot at the 1968 Democratic National Convention. Hoffman and Rubin used the trial as a platform for Yippie antics—at one point, they showed up in court attired in judicial robes.
The Youth International Party Line (YIPL; later, the name was changed to TAP for Technological American Party or Technological Assistance Program), started by Hoffman and Al Bell in June 1971 was the pioneer phreak magazine.
A YIP-related newspaper, The Yipster Times was founded by Dana Beal in 1972 and published in New York City. It changed its name to Overthrow in 1979.

**Yippies in the new millennium**
The Yippies led by Beal, with their headquarters at 9 Bleecker Street in lower Manhattan, have continued as a small movement into the early 2000s. They no longer publish a newspaper but are known for their annual marches in New York City to legalize marijuana. Beal crusades for the use of Ibogaine to treat heroin addicts. His erstwhile associate Aron Kay ("Pieman") continues to inspire a new generation of pie-throwers (of mushroom pies) against establishment figures. Another Yippie, A.J. Weberman, deconstructs the poetry of Bob Dylan, unmasks neo-Nazis and speculates about the tramps on the Grassy Knoll through his various web sites. According to the New York Times, the Yippie headquarters is being turned into a counterculture museum. [1]
The Lyndon LaRouche movement has long regarded the Yippies as being among its arch-enemies. In the early 1980s the Yippies participated in several demonstrations against LaRouche in Manhattan. LaRouche, in turn, presented scurrilous "dope dossiers" to various law enforcement agencies in an unsuccessful attempt to get Beal, Kay and other Yippies busted
» Anarchism
**Anarchism** originated as a term of abuse first used against the working class sans-culottes during the French Revolution. Whilst the term is still used in a pejorative way to describe "any act that used violent means to destroy the organization of society", it has also been given a variety of positive definitions by self-defined anarchists.
The word anarchism is derived from the Greek αναρχία ("without archons (ruler, chief, king)"). Anarchism, as a political philosophy, is the belief that rulers, laws, and authority are unnecessary and should be abolished. Anarchism also refers to related social movements that advocate the elimination of authoritarian institutions, particularly the state. The word "anarchy," as most anarchists use it, does not imply chaos, nihilism, or anomie, but rather a harmonious anti-authoritarian society. In place of what are regarded as authoritarian political structures and coercive economic institutions, anarchists advocate social relations based upon voluntary association of autonomous individuals, cooperation, mutual aid, and self-governance. But what is considered to be "authoritarian" or "libertarian" is the subject of sharp dispute amongst anarchists. For example, while most anarchists oppose capitalism, believing it to be authoritarian and/or exploitative, a few theorists have espoused anarcho-capitalism.
While anarchism is defined by what it is against, most anarchists also offer positive visions of what they believe to be a truly free society. However, ideas about how an anarchist society might work vary considerably, especially with respect to economics; there is likewise some disagreement about how a free society might be brought about. Hence, anarchism is comprised of a wide variety of philosophies, some of which are discussed further below.

**Origins of anarchism**
Kropotkin, and others, argue that before recorded history, human society was organized on anarchist principles. Most anthropologists follow Kropotkin and Engels in believing that hunter-gatherer bands had an egalitarian structure due to lack of a division of labour, accumulated wealth, or decreed law, and equal access to resources.
Anarchists including the The Anarchy Organisation and Rothbard find anarchist attitudes in the philosophy of Taoism in Ancient China. Kropotkin found an early instance of anarchist philosophy in the ideas of stoic Zeno of Citium. According to Kropotkin, Zeno "repudiated the omnipotence of the state, its intervention and regimentation, and proclaimed the sovereignty of the moral law of the individual".
The Anabaptists of 16th century Europe are sometimes considered to be religious forerunners of modern anarchism. Bertrand Russell, in his History of Western Philosophy, writes that the Anabaptists "repudiated all law, since they held that the good man will be guided at every moment by the Holy Spirit... [f]rom this premise they arrive at communism...." The Diggers or "True Levellers" were an early communistic movement during the time of the English Civil War, and are considered by some as forerunners of modern anarchism.
The first use of the term anarchy in the modern era to mean something other than chaos was by Louis-Armand, Baron de Lahontan in his Nouveaux voyages dans l'Amérique septentrionale, (1703), where he described the indigenous American society, which had no state, laws, prisons, priests, or private property, as being in anarchy. Russell Means, a libertarian and leader in the American Indian Movement, has repeatedly stated that he is "an anarchist, and so are all [his] ancestors."
The first modern essay explicitly advocating the absence of government was A Vindication of Natural Society (1756) written anonymously by Edmund Burke. Nine years later, when he was running for parliament, Burke said that it was satire. The first positive theory of anarchism was William Godwin's An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice (1793). This was a very influential tract; though he did not use the word anarchism, some today regard him as the "founder of philosophical anarchism." The themes of his work would become central to the future development of anarchism. But at this point no anarchist movement yet existed, and the term anarchiste was known only as an insult hurled by the bourgeois Girondins at more radical elements in the French revolution. Other liberal anarchists include Gustave de Molinari, Thomas Hodgskin, Auberon Herbert, and Herbert Spencer.

**The first self-labelled anarchist**
It is commonly held that it wasn't until Pierre-Joseph Proudhon published What is Property? in 1840 that the term "anarchist" was adopted as a self-description. It is for this reason that some claim Proudhon as the founder of modern anarchist theory. In What is Property? Proudhon answers with the famous accusation "Property is theft." In this work he opposed the institution of decreed "property" (propriété), where owners have complete rights to "use and abuse" their property as they wish, such as exploiting workers for profit. In its place Proudhon supported what he called 'possession' - individuals can have limited rights to use resources, capital and goods in accordance with principles of equality and justice. He opposed forced collective ownership. In Theory of Property (1863) he says: "Now in 1840 I categorically rejected the notion of the right of property...for both the group and the individual, the nation and the citizen." However, in that text he sanctions "private property," so as "to act as a counterweight to the State power, and by so doing to insure the liberty of the individual."
Proudhon's vision of anarchy, which he called mutualism (mutuellisme), involved an exchange economy where the products of labor could rightfully be owned individually, and individuals and groups could trade the produce by using labor-backed money (labor notes). The use of labor notes would insure that no one purchased a good with less of his own labor than the labor undertaken to produce the good he was purchasing. Hence, with labor notes, profitless transactions would be facilitated. Proudhon's ideas were influential within French working class movements, and his followers were active in the Revolution of 1848 in France.

**Max Stirner's Egoism**
In his The Ego and Its Own Stirner argued that most commonly accepted social institutions - including the notion of State, property as a right, natural rights in general, and the very notion of society - were mere illusions or ghosts in the mind, saying of society that "the individuals are its reality." He advocated egoism and a form of amoralism, in which individuals would unite in 'associations of egoists' only when it was in their self interest to do so. For him, property simply comes about through might: "Whoever knows how to take, to defend, the thing, to him belongs property." And, "What I have in my power, that is my own. So long as I assert myself as holder, I am the proprietor of the thing."
Stirner's ideas were influential on a wide range of anarchists, although interpretations of his thought are diverse. For example, American Individualist Benjamin Tucker's ideas on property were founded on egoism, as he believed that property could only come about by self-interested parties contracting to establish it: "the right of might and the right of contract - are the only rights that ever have been or ever can be."

**American individualist anarchism**
In 1825 Josiah Warren had participated in a communitarian experiment headed by Robert Owen called New Harmony, which failed in a few years amidst much internal conflict. Warren blamed the community's failure on a lack of individual sovereignty and a lack of private property. Warren proceeded to organise experimenal anarchist communities which respected what he called "the sovereignty of the individual" at Utopia and Modern Times. In 1833 Warren wrote and published The Peaceful Revolutionist, which some have noted to be the first anarchist periodical ever published. Benjamin Tucker says that Warren "was the first man to expound and formulate the doctrine now known as Anarchism." (Liberty XIV (December, 1900):1)
Benjamin Tucker became interested in anarchism through meeting Josiah Warren and William B. Greene. He edited and published Liberty from August 1881 to April 1908; it is widely considered to be the finest individualist-anarchist periodical ever issued in the English language. Tucker's conception of individualist anarchism incorporated the ideas of a variety of theorists: Greene's ideas on mutual banking; Warren's ideas on cost as the limit of price (a heterodox variety of labour theory of value); Proudhon's market anarchism; Max Stirner's egoism; and, Herbert Spencer's "law of equal freedom". Tucker strongly supported "private property" in the product of labor, including wages, and a market economy for trading in private property.
The economic system of the individualists was called mutualism, which differs from capitalism, as it sees profit as subverting labor-value, therefore being exploitation; and socialism, as it sees collective ownership as subverting self-ownership. Tucker believed that in a laissez-faire system, the ability to make a profit would be nearly non-existent due to an abundance of economic competition. Other 19th century individualists include Lysander Spooner, Stephen Pearl Andrews, and Victor Yarros. Unlike anarcho-communists, the individualists aimed for equality of opportunity rather than equality of wealth. As Laurance Labadie explains: "In a world where inequality of ability is inevitable, anarchists do not sanction any attempt to produce equality by artificial or authoritarian means. The only equality they posit and will strive their utmost to defend is the equality of opportunity." (Anarchism Applied to Economics)
Political historian Carl Levy writes that "Since World War II, this tradition has been reborn and modified in the United States as anarcho-capitalism or libertarianism." However, labor-value individualist anarchism is extant today, primarily in the United States, and is currently espoused by Joe Peacott and Kevin Carson.

**The First International**
In Europe, harsh reaction followed the revolutions of 1848. Twenty years later in 1864 the International Workingmen's Association, sometimes called the 'First International', united some diverse European revolutionary currents including anarchism. Due to its genuine links to active workers movements the International became signficiant.
From the start Karl Marx was a leading figure in the International: he was elected to every succeeding General Council of the association. The first objections to Marx came from the Mutualists who opposed communism and statism. Shortly after Mikhail Bakunin and his followers joined in 1868, the First International became polarised into two camps, with Marx and Bakunin as their respective figureheads. The clearest difference between the camps was over strategy. The anarchists around Bakunin favoured (in Kropotkin's words) "direct economical struggle against capitalism, without interfering in the political parliamentary agitation." At that time Marx and his followers focused on parliamentary activity.
Bakunin characterised Marx's ideas as authoritarian, and predicted that if a Marxist party gained to power its leaders would end up as bad as the ruling class they had fought against. In 1872 the conflict climaxed with a final split between the two groups at the Hague Congress. This is often cited as the origin of the conflict between anarchists and Marxists. From this moment the social democratic and libertarian currents of socialism had distinct organisations including rival 'internationals'.

**Anarchist Communism**
Proudhon and Bakunin both opposed communism, which in their time was strongly associated with the statist ideas of thinkers such as Étienne Cabet. However, in the early 1870s the majority of Bakunin's followers moved away from Bakunin's philosophy (called "collectivism"), and embraced a new anarchist theory incorporating many communist concepts. The anarcho-communists diverged from Proudhon in the area of property rights. Proudhon maintained that individuals have a right to the product of their labour, while the anarcho-communists believed that individuals have a right to what they need, irrespective of how much labor produce they create.
Anarcho-communists believe in the collectivization of the products of labor, which is to be shared according to need (see gift economy), as opposed to an exchange-based system of individual ownership. Carlo Cafiero, a member of the Italian section of the International which embraced anarchist communism at its 1876 congress, explained in his Anarchy and Communism : "If we preserve the individual appropriation of the products of labour, we would be forced to preserve money, leaving more or less accumulation of wealth according to more or less merit rather than need of individuals." This position was anticipated by Joseph Déjacque, notable as the first person to describe himself as a "libertarian". He argued for the satisfaction of human needs over remuneration of labour in his US published journal Le Libertaire (1858-1861), rejecting the Proudhonian support of individual ownership of the product of labor and markets. He wrote a letter admonishing Proudon saying: "it is not the product of his or her labor that the worker has a right to, but to the satisfaction of his or her needs, whatever may be their nature."
Peter Kropotkin was the most important nineteenth century proponent of anarchist communism. In The Conquest of Bread and Fields, Factories and Workshops Kropotkin outlined anarchist communist society and how to achieve it. Kropotkin's communism was based on his theory of mutual aid where co-operation is more beneficial than competition, illustrated in nature in Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution (1897). Subsequent anarchist communists include Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman. The anarcho-syndicalist movements (see below) generally saw anarchist communism as their objective. Isaac Puente's 1932 Comunismo Libertario was adopted by the Spanish CNT as its manifesto for an anarchist communist society.
Some anarchists disliked this merging of communism with anarchism. This view was held by several individualist anarchists, who maintained that abolition of private property was not consistent with liberty. For example, Benjamin Tucker, whilst professing respect for Kropotkin and publishing his work], described communist anarchism as "pseudo-anarchism".

**Propaganda of the deed**
Anarchists have often been portrayed as dangerous and violent, due mainly to a number of high-profile violent acts including riots, assassinations, insurrections, and terrorism by some anarchists. Some revolutionaries of the late 19th century encouraged acts of political violence, such as bombings and the assassinations of heads of state to further anarchism. Such actions have sometimes been called 'propaganda by the deed'.
One of the more outspoken advocates of this strategy was Johann Most, who said "the existing system will be quickest and most radically overthrown by the annihilation of its exponents. Therefore, massacres of the enemies of the people must be set in motion." Most's preferred method of terrorism, dynamite, earned him the moniker "Dynamost."
However, there is no consensus on the legitimacy or utility of violence in general. Mikhail Bakunin and Errico Malatesta, for example, wrote of violence as a necessary and sometimes desirable force. At the same time, they both denounced violence and terrorist acts (Malatesta in "On Violence" and Bakunin when he refuted Nechaev).
Other anarchists, sometimes identified as pacifist anarchists, share a belief in nonviolence. Leo Tolstoy, whose philosophy is often viewed as a form of Christian anarchism, believed that nonviolent resistance was the only method to achieve any lasting social change. For Tolstoy and other pacifists all violence is illegitimate, irrespective of whether it is perpetrated by the state or by its opponents.

**Anarchism in the labour movement**
The red-and-black flag, coming from the experience of anarchists in the labour movement, is particularly associated with anarcho-syndicalism.
Anarcho-syndicalism and Industrial Unionism are two early 20th century working class industrial movements which sought to overthrow capitalism, states and institute a worker controlled society. In the late 19th century, anarcho-syndicalism developed as a movement pursuing industrial actions, especially the general strike, as the primary strategy to achieve anarchist revolution, and "build the new society in the shell of the old". Most anarcho-syndicalists shared a belief in anarchist communism as the best form of the future society, although not all anarchist communists agreed with syndicalism.
After the 1871 repression French anarchism began to resurface and influenced the Bourses de Travails of autonomous workers groups and trade unions. From this movement the Confédération Générale du Travail (General Confederation of Work, CGT) was formed in 1895 as the first major anarcho-syndicalist movement. Emile Pataud and Emile Pouget's writing for the CGT saw libertarian communism developing from a general strike. After 1914 the CGT moved away from anarcho-syndicalism due to the appeal of Bolshevism. French-style syndicalism was a significant movement in Europe prior to 1921, and remained a significant movement in Spain until the mid 1940s.
The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) was founded in 1905 in the United States. It espoused industrial unionism, and sought to use the general strike to usher in an Industrial Commonwealth (a stateless society). At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. While not explicitly syndicalist or anarchist, the IWW organised using working class rank and file democracy, and embodied a spirit of resistance and freedom which has inspired many Anglophone syndicalists.


CNT propaganda from April 2004. Reads: Don't let the politicians rule our lives/ You vote and they decide/ Don't allow it/ Unity, Action, Self-management.
Spanish anarchist trade union federations were formed in the 1870's, 1900 and 1910. The most successful was the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour: CNT), was founded in 1910. Prior to the 1940s the CNT was the major force in Spanish working class politics. It had a membership of 1.58 million in 1934. The CNT played a major role in the Spanish Civil War. See also: Anarchism in Spain.
In the 1910-1917 Mexican Revolution anarcho-syndicalists like Ricardo Flores Magón were key figures. This success has been influential for Latin American anarchism. This influence extends to the Zapatista rebellion and the factory occupation movements in Argentina and elsewhere. In Berlin in 1922 the CNT was amongst trade unions who joined together to form the International Workers Association, an anarcho-syndicalist successor to the First International.
Contemporary anarcho-syndicalism continues as a minor force in many socities; much smaller than in the 1910s, 20s and 30s.
The largest organised anarchist movement today is in Spain, in the form of the Confederación General del Trabajo and the CNT. The CGT claims a paid-up membership of 60,000, and received over a million votes in Spanish syndical elections. Other active syndicalist movements include the US Workers Solidarity Alliance, and the UK Solidarity Federation. The revolutionary industrial unionist Industrial Workers of the World also exists, claiming 2,000 paid members. Contemporary critics of anarcho-syndicalism and revolutionary industrial unionism claim that they are workerist and fail to deal with economic life outside work. Post-leftist critics such as Bob Black claim anarcho-syndicalism advocates oppressive social structures, such as work and the workplace.
Anarcho-syndicalists in general uphold principles of workers solidarity, direct action, and self-management.

**The Russian Revolution**
Main article: Russian Revolution of 1917
The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a seismic event in the development of anarchism as a movement and as a philosophy.
Anarchists participated alongside the Bolsheviks in both February and October revolutions, many anarchists initially supporting the Bolshevik coup. However the Bolsheviks soon turned against the anarchists and other left-wing opposition, a conflict which culminated in the 1918 Kronstadt rebellion. Anarchists in central Russia were imprisoned or driven underground, or joined the victorious Bolsheviks. In Ukraine anarchists fought in the civil war against both Whites and Bolsheviks within the Makhnovshchina peasant army led by Nestor Makhno).
Expelled American anarchists Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman before leaving Russia were amongst those agitating in response to Bolshevik policy and the suppression of the Kronstadt uprising. Both wrote classic accounts of their experiences in Russia, aiming to expose the reality of Bolshevik control. For them, Bakunin's predictions about the consequences of Marxist rule had proved all too true.
The victory of the Bolsheviks in the October Revolution and the resulting Russian Civil War did serious damage to anarchist movements internationally. Many workers and activists saw Bolshevik success as setting an example; Communist parties grew at the expense of anarchism and other socialist movements. In France and the US for example, the major syndicalist movements of the CGT and IWW began to realign themselves away from anarchism and towards the Communist International.
In Paris, the Dielo Truda group of Russian anarchist exiles which included Nestor Makhno concluded that anarchists needed to develop new forms of organisation in response to the structures of Bolshevism. Their 1926 manifesto, known as the Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communists, was supported by some communist anarchists, though opposed by many others.
The Platform continues to inspire some contemporary anarchist groups who believe in an anarchist movement organised around its principles of 'theoretical unity', 'tactical unity', 'collective responsibility' and 'federalism'. Platformist groups today include the Workers Solidarity Movement in Ireland, the UK's Anarchist Federation, and the late North Eastern Federation of Anarchist Communists in the northeastern United States and bordering Canada.
**The fight against fascism**
In the 1920s and 1930s the familiar dynamics of anarchism's conflict with the state were transformed by the rise of fascism in Europe. In many cases, European anarchists faced difficult choices - should they join in popular fronts with reformist democrats and Soviet-led Communists against a common fascist enemy? Luigi Fabbri, an exile from Italian fascism, was amongst those arguing that fascism was something different:
"Fascism is not just another form of government which, like all others, uses violence. It is the most authoritarian and the most violent form of government imaginable. It represents the utmost glorification of the theory and practice of the principle of authority."
In France, where the fascists came close to insurrection in the February 1934 riots, anarchists divided over a 'united front' policy. In Spain, the CNT initially refused to join a popular front electoral alliance, and abstention by CNT supporters led to a right wing election victory. But in 1936, the CNT changed its policy and anarchist votes helped bring the popular front back to power. Months later, the ruling class responded with an attempted coup, and the Spanish Civil War (1936-39) was underway.
In reponse to the army rebellion an anarchist-inspired movement of peasants and workers, supported by armed militias, took control of the major city of Barcelona and of large areas of rural Spain where they collectivized the land. But even before the eventual fascist victory in 1939, the anarchists were losing ground in a bitter struggle with the Stalinists. The CNT leadership often appeared confused and divided, with some members controversially entering the government. Stalinist-led troops suppressed the collectives, and persecuted both dissident marxists and anarchists.
Since the late 1970s anarchists have been involved in fighting the rise of neo-fascist groups. In Germany and the United Kingdom some anarchists worked within militant anti-fascist groups alongside members of the Marxist left. They advocated directly combating fascists with physical force rather than relying on the state. Since the late 1990s, a similar tendency has developed within US anarchism. See also: Anti-Racist Action (US), Anti-Fascist Action (UK), Antifa

**Religious Anarchisms**
Most anarchist culture tends to be secular if not outright anti-religious. However, the combination of religious social conscience, historical religiousity amongst oppressed social classes, and the compatibility of some interpretations of religious traditions with anarchism has resulted in religious anarchisms.
Christian anarchists believe that there is no higher authority than God, and oppose earthly authority such as government and established churches. They believe that Jesus' teachings were clearly anarchistic, but were corrupted when "Christianity" was declared the official religion of Rome. Christian anarchists, who follow Jesus' directive to "turn the other cheek", are strict pacifists. The most famous advocate of Christian anarchism was Leo Tolstoy, author of The Kingdom of God is Within You, who called for a society based on compassion, nonviolent principles and freedom. Christian anarchists tend to form experimental communities. They also occasionally resist taxation. Many Christian anarchists are vegetarian or vegan[citation needed]. Christian anarchy can be said to have roots as old as the religion's birth, as the early church exhibits many anarchistic tendencies, such as communal goods and wealth. By aiming to obey utterly certain of the Bible's teachings certain anabaptist groups of sixteenth century Europe attempted to emulate the early church's social-economic organisation and philosophy by regarding it as the only social structure capable of true obediance to Jesus' teachings, and utterly rejected (in theory) all earthly hierarchies and authority (and indeed non-anabaptists in general) and violence as ungodly. Such groups, for example the Hutterites, typically went from initially anarchistic beginnings to, as their movements stabalised, more authoritarian social models.
Chinese Anarchism was most influential in the 1920s. Strands of Chinese anarchism included Tai-Xu's Buddhist Anarchism which was influenced by Tolstoy and the well-field system.
Neopaganism, with its focus on the environment and equality, along with its often decentralized nature, has lead to a number of neopagan anarchists. One of the most prominent is Starhawk, who writes extensively about both spirituality and activism.

**Anarchism and feminism**
Early French feminists such as Jenny d'Héricourt and Juliette Adam criticised the mysogyny in the anarchism of Proudhon during the 1850s.
Anarcha-feminism is a kind of radical feminism that espouses the belief that patriarchy is a fundamental problem in society. While anarchist feminism has existed for more than a hundred years, its explicit formulation as anarcha-feminism dates back to the early 70s, during the second-wave feminist movement. Anarcha-feminism, views patriarchy as the first manifestation of hierarchy in human history; thus, the first form of oppression occurred in the dominance of male over female. Anarcha-feminists then conclude that if feminists are against patriarchy, they must also be against all forms of hierarchy, and therefore must reject the authoritarian nature of the state and capitalism. [citation needed]
Anarcho-primitivists see the creation of gender roles and patriarchy a creation of the start of civilization, and therefore consider primitivism to also be an anarchist school of thought that addresses feminist concerns. Eco-feminism is often considered a feminist variant of green anarchist feminist thought.
Anarcha-feminism is most often associated with early 20th-century authors and theorists such as Emma Goldman and Voltairine de Cleyre, although even early first-wave feminist Mary Wollstonecraft held proto-anarchist views, and William Godwin is often considered a feminist anarchist precursor. It should be noted that Goldman and de Cleyre, though they both opposed the state, had opposing philosophies, as de Cleyre explains: "Miss Goldman is a communist; I am an individualist. She wishes to destroy the right of property, I wish to assert it. I make my war upon privilege and authority, whereby the right of property, the true right in that which is proper to the individual, is annihilated. She believes that co-operation would entirely supplant competition; I hold that competition in one form or another will always exist, and that it is highly desirable it should." In the Spanish Civil War, an anarcha-feminist group, "Free Women", organized to defend both anarchist and feminist ideas.
In the modern day anarchist movement, many anarchists, male or female, consider themselves feminists, and anarcha-feminist ideas are growing. The publishing of Quiet Rumors, an anarcha-feminist reader, has helped to spread various kinds of anti-authoritarian and anarchist feminist ideas to the broader movement. Wendy McElroy has popularized an individualist-anarchism take on feminism in her books, articles, and individualist feminist website.

**Anarcho-capitalism**
Anarcho-capitalism is a predominantly United States-based theoretical tradition that desires a stateless society with the economic system of free market capitalism. Anarcho-capitalists believe all voluntary transactions between consenting adults should be legal, and do not oppose employment or interest. Unlike 19th century American individualism, anarcho-capitalism does not generally hold with the labour theory of value, but rather holds the subjective theory of value. Unlike most other branches of anarchism, they do not oppose profit or wage labour. This is one of the main reasons why most anarchists do not recognise anarcho-capitalism as a form of anarchism. Anarcho-capitalists do, however, oppose state capitalism. Some anarcho-capitalists regard anarcho-capitalism as a form of individualist anarchism; however, opponents argue that the two are opposed.
Murray Rothbard's synthesis of classical liberalism and Austrian economics was germinal for the development of contemporary anarcho-capitalist theory. Rothbard defines anarchism in terms of the non-aggression principle. For Rothbard, "an anarchist society [is] one where there is no legal possibility for coercive aggression against the person or property of any individual." Rothbard's conception is based on the concept of Natural Law. Competiting theorists use egoism, utilitarianism (used by David Friedman), or contractarianism (used by Jan Narveson).
Anarcho-capitalists favor complete laissez-faire capitalism as opposed to state capitalism; Rothbard says the "difference between free-market capitalism and state capitalism is precisely the difference between, on the one hand, peaceful, voluntary exchange, and on the other, violent expropriation." Though the term anarcho-capitalism was coined by Rothbard, noted anarcho-capitalists, along with some historians such as David Hart and Ralph Raico, considered similar philosophies existing prior to Rothbard to be anarcho-capitalist. These include the philosophies of 18th and 19th theorists such as Gustave de Molinari, Julius Faucher, Jakob Mauvillon, and Auberon Herbert Opponents of anarcho-capitalists accuse them of trying to "jump on the bandwagon", especially when they are perceived to be associating themselves with persons whom are usually thought of as anti-capitalist.
Important anarcho-capitalists include Hans-Hermann Hoppe, Lew Rockwell, and Bryan Caplan. Some minarchists, such as Ayn Rand, Robert Nozick, and Robert A. Heinlein, have influenced anarcho-capitalism.
Anarcho-capitalists argue that many dictionaries define anarchism as being a "rejection of all forms of coercive control and authority," which they say includes anarcho-capitalism. However, most anarchists deny that anarcho-capitalism is a form of anarchism, arguing that capitalism runs contrary to an egalitarian power structure and is an inherently authoritarian institution. They argue that wage labour (and hence capitalism) are unanarchist, being authoritarian in nature and that it is essential to anarchism for such practices to be abolished. For example, "An Anarchist FAQ" argues that "social relations between capitalists and employees can never be equal, because private ownership of the means of production gives rise to social hierarchy and relations of coercive authority and subordination".

**Anarchism and the environment**
Since the late 1970s anarchists in Anglophone and European countries have been taking action for the natural environment. Eco-anarchists or Green anarchists believe in deep ecology. This is a worldview that embraces biodiversity and sustainability. Eco-anarchists often use direct action against what they see as earth-destroying institutions. Of particular importance is the Earth First! movement, that takes action such as tree sitting. Another important component is ecofeminism, which sees the domination of nature as a metaphor for the domination of women. Green anarchism also involves a critique of industrial capitalism, and, for some green anarchists, civilization itself.]
Primitivism is a predominantly Western philosophy that advocates a return to a pre-industrial and usually pre-agricultural society. It develops a critique of industrial civilization. In this critique technology and development have alienated people from the natural world. This philosophy develops themes present in the political action of the Luddites and the writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Primitivism developed in the context of the Reclaim the Streets, Earth First! and the Earth Liberation Front movements. John Zerzan wrote that civilization — not just the state — would need to fall for anarchy to be achieved. Anarcho-primitivists point to the anti-authoritarian nature of many 'primitive' or hunter-gatherer societies throughout the world's history, as examples of anarchist societies.

*Other branches and offshoots**
Anarchism generates many eclectic and syncretic philosophies and movements. Since the Western social formet in the 1960s and 1970s a number new of movements and schools have appeared. Most of these stances are limited to even smaller numbers than the schools and movements listed above.

•Post-left anarchy - Post-left anarchy (also called egoist-anarchism) seeks to distance itself from the traditional "left" - communists, liberals, social democrats, etc. - and to escape the confines of ideology in general. Post-leftists argue that anarchism has been weakened by its long attachment to contrary "leftist" movements and single issue causes (anti-war, anti-nuclear, etc.). It calls for a synthesis of anarchist thought and a specifically anti-authoritarian revolutionary movement outside of the leftist milieu. It often focuses on the individual rather than speaking in terms of class or other broad generalizations and shuns organizational tendencies in favor of the complete absence of explicit hierarchy. Important groups and individuals associated with Post-left anarchy include: CrimethInc, the magazine Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed and its editor Jason McQuinn, Bob Black, Hakim Bey and others. For more information, see Infoshop.org's Anarchy After Leftism[27] section, and the Post-left section on anarchism.ws. See also: Post-left anarchy

•Post-structuralism - The term postanarchism was originated by Saul Newman, first receiving popular attention in his book From Bakunin to Lacan to refer to a theoretical move towards a synthesis of classical anarchist theory and poststructuralist thought. Subsequent to Newman's use of the term, however, it has taken on a life of its own and a wide range of ideas including autonomism, post-left anarchy, situationism, post-colonialism and Zapatismo. By its very nature post-anarchism rejects the idea that it should be a coherent set of doctrines and beliefs. As such it is difficult, if not impossible, to state with any degree of certainty who should or shouldn't be grouped under the rubric. Nonetheless key thinkers associated with post-anarchism include Saul Newman, Todd May, Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari.


•Insurrectionary anarchism - Insurrectionary anarchism is a form of revolutionary anarchism critical of formal anarchist labor unions and federations. Insurrectionary anarchists advocate informal organization, including small affinity groups, carrying out acts of resistance in various struggles, and mass organizations called base structures, which can include exploited individuals who are not anarchists. Proponents include Wolfi Landstreicher and Alfredo M. Bonanno, author of works including "Armed Joy" and "The Anarchist Tension". This tendency is represented in the US in magazines such as Willful Disobedience and Killing King Abacus.

•Small 'a' anarchism - Small 'a' anarchism is a term used in two different, but not unconnected contexts. Dave Neal posited the term in opposition to big 'A' Anarchism in the article Anarchism: Ideology or Methodology?. While big 'A' Anarchism referred to ideological Anarchists, small 'a' anarchism was applied to their methodological counterparts; those who viewed anarchism as "a way of acting, or a historical tendency against illegitimate authority." As an anti-ideological position, small 'a' anarchism shares some similarities with post-left anarchy. David Graeber and Andrej Grubacic offer an alternative use of the term, applying it to groups and movements organising according to or acting in a manner consistent with anarchist principles of decentralisation, voluntary association, mutual aid, the network model, and crucially, "the rejection of any idea that the end justifies the means, let alone that the business of a revolutionary is to seize state power and then begin imposing one's vision at the point of a gun."

**Other issues**

•Conceptions of an anarchist society - Many political philosophers justify support of the state as a means of regulating violence, so that the destruction caused by human conflict is minimized and fair relationships are established. Anarchists argue that pursuit of these ends does not justify the establishment of a state; many argue that the state is incompatible with those goals and the cause of chaos, violence, and war. Anarchists argue that the state helps to create a monopoly on violence, and uses violence to advance elite interests. Much effort has been dedicated to explaining how anarchist societies would handle

•Civil rights and cultural sovereignty - Black anarchism opposes the existence of a state, capitalism, and subjugation and domination of people of color, and favors a non-hierarchical organization of society. Theorists include Ashanti Alston, Lorenzo Komboa Ervin, and Sam Mbah. Anarchist People of Color was created as a forum for non-caucasian anarchists to express their thoughts about racial issues within the anarchist movement, particularly within the United States. National anarchism is a political view which seeks to unite cultural or ethnic preservation with anarchist views. Its adherents propose that those preventing ethnic groups (or races) from living in separate autonomous groupings should be resisted. Anti-Racist Action is not an anarchist group, but many anarchists are involved. It focuses on publicly confronting racist agitators. The Zapatista movement of Chiapas, Mexico is a cultural sovereignty group with some anarchist proclivities.

•Neocolonialism and Globalization - Nearly all anarchists oppose neocolonialism as an attempt to use economic coercion on a global scale, carried out through state institutions such as the World Bank, World Trade Organization, Group of Eight, and the World Economic Forum. Globalization is an ambiguous term that has different meanings to different anarchist factions. Most anarchists use the term to mean neocolonialism and/or cultural imperialism (which they may see as related). Many are active in the anti-globalization movement. Others, particularly anarcho-capitalists, use "globalization" to mean the worldwide expansion of the division of labor and trade, which they see as beneficial so long as governments do not intervene.

•Parallel structures - Many anarchists try to set up alternatives to state-supported institutions and "outposts," such as Food Not Bombs, infoshops, educational systems such as home-schooling, neighborhood mediation/arbitration groups, and so on. The idea is to create the structures for a new anti-authoritarian society in the shell of the old, authoritarian one.

•Technology - Recent technological developments have made the anarchist cause both easier to advance and more conceivable to people. Many people use the Internet to form on-line communities. Intellectual property is undermined and a gift-culture supported by sharing music files, open source programming, and the free software movement. These cyber-communities include the GNU, Linux, Indymedia, and Wiki. Some anarchists see information technology as the best weapon to defeat authoritarianism. Some even think the information age makes eventual anarchy inevitable.[29] See also: Crypto-anarchism and Cypherpunk.

•Pacifism - Some anarchists consider Pacifism (opposition to war) to be inherent in their philosophy. anarcho-pacifists take it further and follow Leo Tolstoy's belief in non-violence. Anarchists see war as an activity in which the state seeks to gain and consolidate power, both domestically and in foreign lands, and subscribe to Randolph Bourne's view that "war is the health of the state"[30]. A lot of anarchist activity has been anti-war based.

•Parliamentarianism - In general terms, the anarchist ethos opposes voting in elections, because voting amounts to condoning the state.[31]. Voluntaryism is an anarchist school of thought which emphasizes "tending your own garden" and "neither ballots nor bullets." The anarchist case against voting is explained in The Ethics of Voting by George H. Smith. (Also see "Voting Anarchists: An Oxymoron or What?" by Joe Peacott, and writings by Fred Woodworth).

•Sectarianism - Most anarchist schools of thought are, to some degree, sectarian. There is often a difference of opinion within each school about how to react to, or interact with, other schools. Some, such as panarchists, believe that it is possible for a variety of modes of social life to coexist and compete. Some anarchists view opposing schools as a social impossibility and resist interaction; others see opportunities for coalition-building, or at least temporary alliances for specific purposes.
**Criticisms of anarchism**
Violence. Since anarchism has often been associated with violence and destruction, some people have seen it as being too violent. On the other hand hand, Frederick Engels criticsed anarchists for not being violent enough:
"A revolution is certainly the most authoritarian thing there is; it is the act whereby one part of the population imposes its will upon the other part by means of rifles, bayonets and cannon — authoritarian means, if such there be at all; and if the victorious party does not want to have fought in vain, it must maintain this rule by means of the terror which its arms inspire in the reactionists. Would the Paris Commune have lasted a single day if it had not made use of this authority of the armed people against the bourgeois?"

*Utopianism. Anarchism is often criticised as unfeasible, or plain utopian, even by many who agree that it's a nice idea in principle. For example, Carl Landauer in his book European Socialism criticizes anarchism as being unrealistically utopian, and holds that government is a "lesser evil" than a society without "repressive force." He holds that the belief that "ill intentions will cease if repressive force disappears" is an "absurdity."[34] However, it must be noted that not all anarchists have such a utopian view of anarchism. For example, some, such as Benjamin Tucker, advocate privately-funded institutions that defend individual liberty and property. However, other anarchists, such as Sir Herbert Read, proudly accept the characterization "utopian."

*Class character. Marxists have characterised anarchism as an expression of the class interests of the petite bourgeoisie or perhaps the lumpenproletariat. See e.g. Plekhanov[35] for a Marxist critique of 1895. Anarchists have also been characterised as spoilt middle-class dilettantes, most recently in relation to anti-capitalist protesters.
**Tacit authoritarianism. In recent decades anarchism has been criticised by 'situationists', 'post-anarchists' and others of preserving 'tacitly statist', authoritarian or bureaucratic tendencies behind a dogmatic facade.[36]

*Hypocrisy. Some critics point to the sexist[37] and racist views of some prominent anarchists, notably Proudhon and Bakunin, as examples of hypocrisy inherent within anarchism. While many anarchists, however, dismiss that the personal prejudices of 19th century theorists influence the beliefs of present-day anarchists, others criticise modern anarchism for continuing to be eurocentric and reference the impact of anarchist thinkers like Proudhon on fascism through groups like Cercle Proudhon.[38] Anarcho-capitalist Bryan Caplan argues that the treatment of fascists and suspected fascist sympathizers by Spanish Anarchists in the Spanish Civil War was a form of illegitimate coercion, making the proffessed anarchists "ultimately just a third faction of totalitarians," alongside the communists and fascists. He also criticizes the willingness of the CNT to join the (statist) Republican government during the civil war, and references Stanley G. Payne's book on the Franco regime which claims that the CNT entered negotiations with the fascist government six years after the war.

**Cultural phenomena**
The kind of anarchism that is most easily encountered in popular culture is represented by celebrities who publicly identify themselves as anarchists. Although some anarchists reject any focus on such famous living individuals as inherently élitist, the following figures are examples of prominent publicly self-avowed anarchists:
•the MIT professor of Linguistics Noam Chomsky
•the science fiction author Ursula K. Le Guin
•the social historian Howard Zinn
•entertainer and author Hans Alfredsson
•the Avant-garde artist Nicolás Rosselló

In Denmark, the Freetown Christiania was created in downtown Copenhagen. The housing and employment crisis in most of Western Europe led to the formation of communes and squatter movements like the one still thriving in Barcelona, in Catalonia. Militant resistance to neo-Nazi groups in places like Germany, and the uprisings of autonomous Marxism, situationist, and Autonomist groups in France and Italy also helped to give popularity to anti-authoritarian, non-capitalist ideas.
In various musical styles, anarchism rose in popularity. Most famous for the linking of anarchist ideas and music has been punk rock, although in the modern age, hip hop, and folk music are also becoming important mediums for the spreading of the anarchist message. In the UK this was associated with the punk rock movement; the band Crass is celebrated for its anarchist and pacifist ideas. The Dutch punk band The Ex further exemplifies this expression.
» Individualism
*Individualism- is a moral, political, and social philosophy, which emphasizes individual liberty, the primary importance of the individual, and the "virtues of self-reliance" and "personal independence". Individualism embraces opposition to authority, and to all manner of controls over the individual, especially when exercised by the political state or "society." It is thus directly opposed to collectivism, which advocates subordination of the individual to the will of the society or community. It is often confused with "egoism," but an individualist need not be an egoist.

**Political individualism**
In political philosophy, the individualist theory of government holds that the state should take a merely defensive role by protecting the liberty of each individual to act as he wishes as long he does not infringe on the same liberty of another. This contrasts with collectivist political theories, where, rather than leaving the individual to pursue his own ends, the state ensures that the individual serves the interests of society when taken as a whole. It also contrasts with fascism, where the individual is required to serve the interests of the state. The term has also been used to describe "individual initiative" and "freedom of the individual" in general, perhaps best described by the French term "laissez faire," a verb meaning "to let [the people] do" [for themselves what they know how to do].
In practice, individualists are chiefly concerned with protecting individual autonomy by opposing encroachment by the state. They pay particular attention to protecting the liberties of the minority against transgressions by the majority and see the individual as the smallest minority. For example, individualists oppose democratic systems unless constitutional protections exist that preserve individual liberty of individuals from being diminished by the interests of the majority. These concerns encompass both civil and economic liberties. One typical concern is the concentration of commercial and industrial enterprise in the hands of the state, and the municipality. The principles upon which this opposition is based are mainly two: that popularly-elected representatives are not likely to have the qualifications, or the sense of responsibility, required for dealing with the multitudinous enterprises, and the large sums of public money involved in civic administration; and that the "health of the state" depends upon the exertions of individuals for their personal benefit (who, "like cells", are the containers of the life of the body). Individualism may take a radicalist approach, as in individualist anarchism.
The individualist sees society as "a large number of individuals working together" to improve their individual and collective welfare. The single person is not just a member of a greater unity. In fact, the single individual is seen as "the ultimate unity," and society is nothing more than a composition of these "individuals". The "state" is an organized form of society, which "ensures the individual's freedom" by law (under the protections of a republic). Thus, individualist policy tends to approve laws that protect, or otherwise enhance the liberties of the individual citizen, but rejects laws that subordinate the individual to the collective.

**Individualism and society**
Jean-Jacques Rousseau's "social contract" maintains that each individual is under implicit contract to submit his own will to the "general will." This advocacy of subordinating the individual will to a collective will is in fundamental opposition to the individualist philosophy. An individualist enters into society to further his own interests, or at least demands the right to serve his own interests, without taking the interests of society into consideration (an individualist need not be an egoist). The individualist does not lend credence to any philosophy that requires the sacrifice of the self-interest of the individual for any "higher" social causes.
Societies and groups can differ, in the extent to which they are based upon predominantly "self-regarding" (individualistic, and arguably self-interested) rather than "other-regarding" (group-oriented, and group, or society-minded) behaviour. There is also a distinction, relevant in this context, between "guilt" societies (e.g. medieval Europe) with an "internal reference standard", and "shame" societies (e.g. Japan, "bringing shame upon one's ancestors") with an "external reference standard", where people look to their peers for feedback, as to whether an action is "acceptable" or not (also known as "group-think").
The extent to which society, or groups are "individualistic" can vary from time to time, and from country to country. For example, Japanese society is more group-oriented (e.g. decisions tend to be taken by consensus among groups, rather than by individuals), and it has been argued that "personalities are less developed" (than is usual in the West). The USA is usually thought of as being at the individualistic (its detractors would say "atomistic") "end of the spectrum", whereas European societies are more inclined to believe in "public-spiritedness", state "socialistic" spending, and in "public" initiatives.
John Kenneth Galbraith made a classic distinction between "private affluence and public squalor" in the USA, and private squalor and public affluence in, for example, Europe, and there is a correlation between individualism and degrees of public sector intervention and taxation.
Individualism is often contrasted with either totalitarianism or collectivism, but in fact there is a spectrum of behaviours ranging at the societal level from highly individualistic societies (e.g. the USA) through mixed societies (a term the UK has used in the post-World War II period) to collectivist. Also, many collectivists (particularly supporters of anarchism or libertarian socialism) point to the enormous differences between liberty-minded collectivism and totalitarian practices.
Individualism, sometimes closely associated with certain variants of individualist anarchism, libertarianism or classical liberalism, typically takes it for granted that individuals know best and that public authority or society has the right to interfere in the person's decision-making process only when a very compelling need to do so arises (and maybe not even in those circumstances). This type of argument is often observed in relation to policy debates regarding regulation of industries.

**Economic individualism**
The doctrine of economic individualism holds that each individual should be allowed autonomy in making his own economic decisions as opposed to those decisions being made by the state, or the community, for him. Morever, it supports the liberty of individuals to own property as opposed to state or collective arrangements. Such an economic system is often called laissez-faire or capitalism.
Critics of modern capitalism sometimes argue that capitalism is not based on individuals but largely on firms and institutions, and that individuals' roles are largely determined by these institutions. However, compared to various forms of political collectivism, capitalism is usually still considered as individualistic since participation in these institutions is voluntary and an individual choice. Yet, capitalism can also thrive in certain collectivistic societies with individual choice. The only difference is what the choice is based on: individual need versus collective need.

**Individualism and US history**
At the time of the formation of the United States, many of its citizens had fled from state or religious oppression in Europe and were influenced by the egalitarian and fraternal ideals that later found expression in the French revolution. Such ideas influenced the framers of the U.S. Constitution (the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans) who believed that the government should seek to protect individual rights in the constitution itself; this idea later led to the Bill of Rights.

**Opposing views**
Individualism has negative connotations in certain societies and environments where it is associated with selfishness. For example, individualism is highly frowned upon in Japan where self-interested behavior is traditionally regarded as a kind of betrayal of those to whom one has obligations (e.g. family and firm). The absence of universal health care in the United States, which traces back to a belief in individual (rather than societal) responsibility, is widely criticised in Europe and other countries where universal health care (usually funded through general taxation) is seen as protecting individuals from the vagaries of health problems. Health care in the United States is provided through private insurance. Some people who cannot afford health insurance in the United States are eligible for Medicaid, a government-sponsored program. Medicare is generally only available to those who are disabled and to single mothers (and their children). Not all doctors will accept medicare, typically just doctors in poor areas of the country who might have a large number of Medicare patients.
Proponents of such public initiatives and social responsibility argue that their policies are beneficial for the individual, and that excessive individualism may actually hurt the individuals themselves. Opponents hold that such public initiatives may have unintended consequences beyond the issues they are intended to address. Many individualists find the "beneficial to the individual" argument repugnant and argue that individualism is not about individual benefit so much as individual choice.
» **Punk ideology**
*Beginning in the late 1970s and continuing to the present, there has evolved a distinctive and largely cohesive system of thought associated with the punk subculture (often simply referred to as punk). Individualism, anti-authoritarianism, political anarchism, free thought, and ethics are concepts, among others, that are addressed by this philosophy. Punk ideology views the world and most that are in it as deeply corrupt and wrong. Punk thoughts usually achieve expression through punk music, fanzines, and spoken-word albums.
This article focuses on a perception of general punk ideology. For information on more specific types of punk ideologies see the section titled other punk ideologies. The rest of this article will use the word "punk" to refer to this generalized punk ideology or to a person who espouses this general take on punk ideology. Therefore, this article only provides a rough generalization of the philosophies of certain groups who identify themselves as punks and is not likely to completely represent the views of all or even the majority of those who do so.

**History**
Punk, since the mid-1970s, has been a movement of shock, rebellion and discontent. As time has progressed, punk has become an overt socio-political movement for some who identify themselves as punks. Bands like: MC5, Discharge, Avskum, Mob 47, Black Flag, The Stooges, Dead Kennedys, Bad Religion, Crass, CPG, Conflict, Subhumans and many others helped to contribute to this ideological climate. In their lyrics, these bands expressed serious discontent with the systems and institutions that organize and control the world. They also offered analysis and potential solutions to the world's problems. This spirit is active to this day in punk music and has matured and expanded in its range.

**Politics**
The political ideology most often associated with punk is that of anarchism. A lot of punk activism has been done in support of anarchist goals. Whether a punk subscribes to anarchism or not, he or she almost certainly is discontent with his or her government. Punks are often very active in trying to change their governing political systems to some extent. When punks engage in activism their demands can usually be described as progressive. Despite the similarities punk may have with the left wing, many punks perceive the efforts of the left as ineffectual and sometimes just as objectionable as the right wing.
Not all punks are connected to anarchism, or have anarchist views. For example, Joe Strummer was a socialist, Michale Graves of The Misfits is a conservative and Ted Leo of Chisel is a liberal. However it's very clear that after anarchism, communism is most popular in the punk community. Also, certain offshoots of punk, like psychobilly and most garage/junk punk are apolitical.

**Anti-authoritarianism**
In punk thought, authority harms people to intolerable extremes. Punks see the police, the clergy, governments, and many other institutions as dangerous and despicable. Authority, punks believe, leads to corruption and abuse. Punk ideas concerning authority derive in part from the political ideology of anarchism. Police brutality and institutionalized discrimination against punks also account for this stance on authoritarianism.

**Non-conformity**
Conformity and non-conformity create one of the most misunderstood issues in Punk ideology. The real issue behind the Punk movement is freedom of thought, or thinking for one's self. In politics, this lead to a large population of free thinkers advocating anarchy; in music, to a new and unique sound. Conformity is viewed as dangerous social coercion because it is a method of forfeiting thought, which prevents people from seeing the true nature of society and forces people to be obedient to the desires of those who hold power be it of mainstream pop culture or the government. Non-conformity is then the result of punks thinking for themselves. However, a person who dresses like a punk and listens to punk music may simply be conforming to the punk movement, and is not truly a punk, for punk is a state of mind.

**Anti-militarism**
Punk ideology uncompromisingly rejects the use of military force. To punks, the military is the most extreme form of authoritarianism. However, since not all punks, skinheads or indie kids are anarchists, others view self-defense as nature's way and will fight for a just cause by any means.

**Anti-capitalism**
Related to the punk opposition to consumerism and "selling out" is the anarchist punk's explicit anti-capitalism. Anarcho-punk music draws heavily from anarchist political movements and theory in claiming that the wage slavery that workers must endure under capitalism is authoritarian, exploitative, unfulfilling, mind-numbing, and should be abolished. Some musicians within anarcho-punk advocate identifying one's self by what kinds of enjoyable, self-directed things one does, instead of by what kind of occupation as a wage slave one has. Anarcho-punk advocates anti-consumerism, DIY-survival (including dumpster diving, shoplifting, etc.), and occasionally destruction of corporate property as forms of direct action one can take to thwart and damage the capitalist system.

**Secularism and Spirituality**
The "Do It Yourself" philosophy means that many punks see spirituality as a private matter of choice, and take a dim view of religious evangelism and proselytizing.
Many punks claim a unique spirituality outside of mainstream religions (although sometimes based on philosophies such as Buddhism or Taoism), believing organized religion to be a form of authoritarianism which causes more problems for humanity to deal with than solutions. There are Christian punks who believe there is no contradiction in being punks and Christians, citing Christian anarchism as a case in point. In addition to those who self-identify as Christian, a number of punks claim a sort of "post-Christianity," referring to schools of modern Biblical criticism such as that of John Shelby Spong, John Dominic Crossan, et. al., which accepts the core moral or ethical message of the Golden Rule in the purported teachings of Jesus of Nazareth and other Christian writers (especially with reference to the various writings' socio-historical context), but rejects the supernatural elements of Chrisian tradition as anything other than metaphor. Punks with post-Christian inclination may be "ethnicly" Christian, but tend to have an equal respect for (as well as critical eye toward) practictioners of any of the world's major religions, acknowledging religion's importance as a component of world literature and history, while maintaining an agnostic or atheist worldview. There are also practicing Muslim punks in Malaysia, who are involved in Straight Edge.
Other punks and indie kids are rationalistic atheists, who see spirituality as a social construct used as an agent of state control.
The lyrics too many punk songs lament the conformity that religion inspires and the authority of the Church.

**Anti-nationalism**
Most left-wing punks are contemptuous of their governments and do not express a great deal of nationalism, patriotism or jingoism. Also, nationalism as devotion to one’s government conflicts with the anti-statism of anarchism. Punks often object to nationalism as providing governments with a means of unwarranted public support. Other punks view nationalism and the support of a particular government as two different acts, or, as writer and humorist Mark Twain put it, "Patriotism is supporting your country all the time, and your government when it deserves it."
On the other hand, in many ex-soviet countries punks were right-wing. They played an important role in their country's nationalistic and anti-soviet movements. In the 1980s this was a way to protest soviet authority.

**Media**
Punks often portray the mass media as a dangerous instrument of social control. Television is, for the most part seen as a waste of time and a distraction from reality and healthier habits. Punk music often laments the commercialism, and the power interests that control the media. The Do It Yourself punk ethic is a reaction to this perceived imbalance of power in the media.
In the USA, a new form of highly political punks, who call themselves Individualist punks, believe that the media is used as a tool of government control. They argue that by only reporting the two leading parties, the Democrats and the Republicans, the media guarantees itself a win/win situation. They believe that Democrats and Republicans only share subtle differences in contrast to the rest of the political parties.

**Environmentalism**
Many punks are environmentalists. "While there will always be different opinions under the punk banner, the prominent environmental philosophy among punks closely resembles 'Deep Ecology'"*. This is a non-anthropocentric form of environmentalism, meaning that it is a philosophy that posits that humans are merely one of many species with no special importance.
**Vegetarianism, veganism, and animal rights**
Some who identify themselves as punks see the exploitation of animals for food, clothing, and research as an extension of the oppression committed against humans. Other punks unconcerned with the treatment of animals have also converted to vegetarian/veganism based on the fact that raising livestock destroys land and water resources. Some punks believe that the brutal way humans treat animals is psychologically connected to the way humans oppress each other. Other punks, under the banner of live for one's self, see vegetarians, vegans, etc. as mindless conformists. Another animal rights issue that punks are concerned with is vivisection and other types of experimentation conducted on animals for cosmetic and medical purposes. These practices have prompted protests from the punk community and the creation of direct action organizations like the Animal Liberation Front.

**Aesthetics** (The noun aesthetic means "that which appeals to the senses")

**Music**
In its three decades of existence, punk music has evolved and mutated to create a diversity of sounds. Punks may now enjoy the earthy harmony of folk-punk, the nostalgic, but often still relevant anthems of 80s peace- and anarcho-punk, or the more abrasive offerings of hardcore punk, and its elaborate array of sub-genres (i.e. crust, grindcore, metalcore, thrash, power violence, etc.). In general, however, punk music is loud, fast, and usually didactic. The loud and fast sound is meant to express impatience, frustration, discontent, anger and aggression. The rhythm is often monotonous, but can in some cases be extremely erratic and complex.
Punk music intentionally defies the expectations listeners have from listening to popular music. Punks often accuse mainstream music of being insincere, watered down and overproduced, and thus inartistic. Punks believe the state of popular music reflects the major record labels' influence on artists, as well as artists' own desire for recognition and wealth overshadowing their creativity.
**Fashion**
In the mid-to-late 1970's and early 1980's, a very distinct Punk fashion became visible in the subculture. It expressed many of the things that punk music expressed: aggression, rebellion, and individualism. This use of fashion being used as a way to be shocking, may have been influenced in part by the Futurist. As the punk movement matured, fashion became less important as punk ideas became more important. Punk fashion has also received criticisms for being meaningless and for being conformist as the fashion grew in popularity.

**Visual arts**
Visual art is usually straightforward with a clear message. Album covers contain potent messages concerning social injustice, economic disparity, and images of suffering to shock and create a feeling of empathy in the viewer. Alternatively, they may contain images of selfishness, apathy, and other things that may provoke contempt in the viewer. Much of the earlier artwork was in black and white. This was because earlier art was distributed in fanzines created at copy shops.

**Ethics**
As explained in the other sections of this article, punk ideology sees the world as deeply corrupt. Because of this worldview, a distinct system of beliefs has emerged from the punk movement, which tries to explain the way people ought to behave in such a bleak world.

**Non-conformity**
As the section on conformity pointed out, punks see this social phenomenon as deceitful and coercive. Attempting to acquire a state of non-conformity is one of the most obvious of all punk attributes, though often the most difficult. The ideas punk holds so dear are always under attack by the youth of today who purely see punk as cool and not the meaningful way of changing society for the better real punks live by. The unique, and to many abrasive, sound of punk music expresses not only aggression and discontent but also a refusal to sound mainstream or to sound acceptable to a wide audience. Punk fashion was originally an expression of nonconformity with mainstream culture, as well as that of hippie counterculture.

**Do It Yourself**
In the late 1970s, the punk movement was operating in an environment controlled by outside influences. Because this impinged on the freedom of the movement, people in the punk scene began creating their own record companies, organizing their own concerts, and creating their own print media. This became known as do it yourself, or DIY ethic. "Don't hate the media, become the media" is a famous motto for this movement.

**Direct Action**
Punks often participate in direct action to accomplish their desired goals. In addition to protests, boycotts and so forth, punks are also known for the use of what some may perceive as violence. More active and radical members of the community have been known to bomb gas stations, destroy animal research laboratories, alter billboards to include political messages and occupy abandoned buildings. Recently the phenomenon of hacktivism has been used as an additional method of sabotage. These acts are committed in an effort to create social change when it is known that the normal channels for change have been proven ineffective. Destruction of private property is often deemed acceptable by trendy skater kids as it conveys a cool message of disapproval without hurting people (see conformity). Because Punks tend to disdain materialism, the destruction of someone else's private possessions does not receive much sympathy. Private property itself, however, is much different from possessions.

**Never sell out**
The issues surrounding the act of compromising one's ethical parameters in exchange for personal gain are of particular relevance to punk ideology and culture. Generally, selling out refers to any abandonment of personal and/or community values in exchange for some reciprocal gain, usually in the form of wealth, status, or power. However, due to the direct association between punk rock music and punk ideology, this issue has taken on a specific meaning unique to the punk rock community.
Because anti-establishment attitudes are such an important part of this version of punk ideology, a network of independent music labels, venues, and distributors has slowly come into existence (see Do It Yourself), allowing parties interested in the creation, distribution, and purchase of independently-produced punk music to opt out of the major label system. These networks bypass the traditional systems of content distribution, which are controlled by a small number of large corporations who many feel stifle creative initiative and marginalize the concepts presented in punk ideology.
Often, up-and-coming or long-established punk artists will choose to break from this independent system and work within the established system of major record labels, incurring criticism from within the punk community. Some argue that through their choice, these artists have betrayed their communities and that as punk artists; their creative integrity is necessarily compromised. However, many artists have defended their actions, arguing that working through the major label system is a necessary evil to allow for the widest propagation of their artistic message. The band Chumbawamba is well known for using this justification when they signed on with the major label EMI.
Other times, it could be either a natural artistic progression from punk to prog rock (for example) or mainstream pop. It could even be as a result of disillusionment that a punk "sells out". A good example of disillusionment would be Garry Bushell's shift from socialism to the right.

**Criticisms of punk ideology**
Punk is critical of the state of society, whether or not it is Hardline, Nazi Punk or Queercore. However, punk has been criticized, both from outside and from within. From within, Anarcho Punk Legends (better known as Crass) wrote songs critical of the punk movement. Examples include "White Punks on Hope", which accuses Joe Strummer of selling out and betraying his socialist principles. "Punk is Dead" attacks corporate co-option, while "Tribal Rival Rebel Revel" is critical of punks resorting to violence to resolve their differences.
Jello Biafra accused Maximum Rock'n'Roll of what he calls "punk fundamentalism" when they refused to advertise Alternative Tentacles records, saying, "They weren't punk".
From outside, punk ideology has been criticized by people like Jim Goad. In his essay, "The Underground is A Lie!", he claims that many punks are hypocrites, that they act poor while hiding the fact that a significant number come from middle class backgrounds. He also argues that punk is as outdated and obsolescent as the mainstream, saying:
"The mainstream's models of reality are clunky and obsolete, just like yours."
He expands on this in "Farts from Underground", where he argues that the DIY ethic never produces anything original. Instead, Goad argues, it allows for bitching, factionalism and back biting, in this case between rival punk ideologies. He argues that in being politicized and propagandist, punk contributes to a model of "alternative culture" that is blander than the mainstream.
Another external criticism of punk comes from Aristasians, who argue that punk accomplishes nothing but kicking the moldering corpse of the establishment that no longer existed after 1965. They call this "The Doctrine of The Cardboard Enemy", arguing that the more punks rebel against the status quo, the more they become a part of it. In an interview with a punk/indie fanzine, their media representative, Marianne Martindale, posited the question:
"Where did this anti-establishment establishment come from?"
implying that punk is as much a part of the mainstream as what it claims to oppose. Put simply: by declaring oneself non-conformist, one conforms to a societal norm (see also Conformist Rebellion).
Another criticism of punk from within is from Conservative Punk, which argues that punks have become "hippies with mohawks" despite the punk movement being a response to the ethos and ideals of the hippie subculture.

**Other punk ideologies**
Punk is typically seen as having an affinity with radical left-wing or progressive politics, but there are several important exceptions to this. In fact, punk can take a wide range of ideological extremes, some of which are far right and in complete opposition to the left-wing norm. Nazi Punk, for example, is a [nationalistic]], fascist and racist ideology. Hardline punks associate with progressive ideologies like deep ecology, straight edge, animal liberation, but also have a strong affiliation with traditional Abrahamic religion. Straight Edge punk takes a strong stance against drug abuse and for sexual abstinence. Oi! Punk aligns itself with the working class and is sometimes seen as racist and at other times as anti-racist. Conservative Punks ascribe to a punk lifestyle but reject the typical leftist views of other punks. Streetpunks are often seen as a reaction to middle-class punks and are thought to have a tribalist mentality.
» lists of Punk bands
*List of Pre-Punk Bands or Proto punk groups (ca. 1965-1976) and individuals that were influential on the development of punk rock;
Groups
• 13th Floor Elevators
• Big Star
• Blondie
• Blue Cheer
• Dr. Feelgood
• The Flamin' Groovies
• The Fugs
• The Godz
• Steve Harley and Cockney Rebel
• Hawkwind
• John's Children
• Richard Hell & the Voidoids
• The Kinks
• Love
• MC5
• The Monks
• Mott the Hoople
• Os Mutantes
• Neu!
• New York Dolls
• Graham Parker & the Rumour
• Pere Ubu
• The Pink Fairies
• Plasmatics
• Jonathan Richman & the Modern Lovers
• The Runaways
• The
• Rocket From The Tombs
• The Seeds
• The Sonics
• The Standells
• Steel Pulse
• The Stooges
• Suicide
• Television
• T. Rex
• Johnny Thunders and The Heartbreakers
• Steve Took's
• The Troggs
• The Velvet Underground
• Wayne County & the Electric Chairs
• The Who
• Witches
• Frank Zappa & the Mothers of Invention

Individuals
• David Bowie
• Arthur Brown
• John Cale
• Alex Chilton
• Leonard Cohen
• Alice Cooper
• Cherry Vanilla
• Wayne (Jayne) County
• John Doe
• Dave Edmunds
• Roky Erickson
• Richard Hell
• Mick Farren
• Peter Hammill
• Alex Harvey
• Nick Lowe
• Iggy Pop
• Lou Reed
• Mick Ronson
• Brinsley Schwarz
• Screaming Lord Sutch
• Patti Smith
• Chris Spedding
• Dave Davies
• Johnny Cash
• Bob Marley
• John Lennon

List of Early Punk bands (1976-1985)
See also: List of musicians by genre
• Adam & the Ants
• Abrasive Wheels
• The Adicts
• The Adverts
• The Afrika Korps
• Alternative TV
• Angelic Upstarts
• Anti-Nowhere League
• Anti-Pasti
• Art Attacks
• The Angry Samoans
• The Au Pairs
• The Avengers
• Bad Brains
• Bad Religion
• The B-52's
• The Bags
• Big Balls and the Great White Idiot
• Big in Japan
• Bjorklund, Steve
• Black Flag
• Blondie
• Boomtown Rats
• The Boys
• The Buzzcocks
• Capitol Punishment
• The Cardboards
• Cardiacs
• Carsickness
• Cheese
• Chelsea
• Circle Jerks
• Cherry Vanilla
• The Clash
• Cockney Rejects
• John Cooper Clarke
• The Cramps
• Crass
• The Curse
• The Damned
• The Dead Boys
• Dead Kennedys
• The Delinquents
• The Descendents
• Desperate Bicycles
• The Dickies
• The Directions
• Dogbodys
• Die Ärzte
• Die Toten Hosen
• The Dils
• The Diodes
• D.O.A.
• Ebba Grön
• The Erasers
• Essential Logic
• The Exploited
• The Fall
• Fatal Microbes
• Fear
• Flipper
• The Flowers of Romance
• Flux of Pink Indians
• Forgotten Rebels
• Gang of Four
• Generation X
• The Germs
• GG Allin with various backing bands
• The Government
• The Heartbreakers
• Hüsker Dü
• O(berste) H(eeres)L(eitung)
• Iggy Pop
• insane picnic
• Ism
• The Jabbers
• J.M.K.E.
• The Jam
• Jimi LaLumia & the Psychotic Frogs
• Joy Division
• The Kids
• Kleenex
• Liliput
• London
• London SS
• The Lurkers
• MC5
• The Mekons
• The Members
• The Minutemen
• Minor Threat
• Mission Of Burma
• The Misfits
• The Monochrome Set
• The Mutants
• NBJ
• Nervous Gender
• Nina Hagen Band
• The Nipple Erectors
• The Nuns
• The Only Ones
• The Partisans
• Patti Smith Group
• Penetration
• Pere Ubu
• The Plasmatics
• Poison Girls
• The Proletariats
• The Partisans
• Radio Birdman
• The Raincoats
• The Ramones
• Razzia
• The Rebels
• Red Zebra
• The Replacements
• The Rezillos
• Richard Hell & the Voidoids
• Riot/Clone
• The Ruts
• The Saints
• Scaterd Few
• The Scumfucs
• Schleimkeim
• The Screamers
• Special Duties
• Sex Pistols
• Sex Telegramm
• Sham 69
• The Short Order Cooks
• Siouxsie & the Banshees
• The Sillies
• The Skids
• Skrewdriver
• Slaughter & the Dogs
• Slime
• The Slits
• Patti Smith
• Social Distortion
• The Soft Boys
• Spasmodic Caress
• The Spitfire Boys
• SS Ultrabrutal
• Stiff Little Fingers
• The Stranglers
• Strike Under
• Suicide
• The Suicide Commandos
• The Subtractions
• Swell Maps
• Talking Heads
• Teen Idles
• Television
• The Television Personalities
• Tom Robinson Band
• The Threats
• Torpedo Moskau
• Toxoplasma
• Toy Dolls
• Tubeway Army
• UK Subs
• The Undertones
• The Urinals
• Velikije Luki
• Vennaskond
• The Vibrators
• Vice Squad
• Vicious White Kids
• The Viletones
• Vomit Pigs
• Vorkriegsjugend
• The Water Pistols (parody by comedian Charlie Drake)
• Wayne County & the Electric Chairs
• The Weirdos
• The Wipers
• Wire
• X (US)
• X (Australia)
• X-Ray Spex
• XTC
• Young Docteurs
• 999


*These are bands that could be considered to be part of the 'second wave' of the punk rock movement, circa 1980 and after.


(Please add to list in alphabetical order)

1208
16 Stitches
7 Seconds
30footfall
The Adolescents
AFI
Against All Authority
Against Me!
Agent Orange
All
Alkaline Trio
Alyrium
Amen 81
Anal Kitties
Antidote
Anti-Flag
Anti-Nowhere League
Anti-Scrunti Faction
The Æffect
The Apostles
Bad Religion
BAP
Barseros
Big Black
Big Drill Car
boiling point
Bedlam Hour
The Beerleaders
Beerzone
Behead The Prophet, No Lord Shall Live
Big Boys
Bikini Kill
Bjorklund, Steve
blink-182
Blue Meanies
Bored Suburban Youth
Born Against
Bombshell Rocks
Bouncing Souls
Boxhamsters
Bratmobile
The Broadways
Career Soldiers
Canalterror
The Casualties
Choking Victim
The Circle Jerks
Citizen Fish
Cleveland Bound Death Sentence
Coca Carola
Cro-Mags
Crimpshrine
Daily Terror
Daisy Chainsaw
Dayglo Abortions
Dead Milkmen
The Descendents
Destyl
The Dicks
Discharge
The Disobedients
D.O.A.
Die Dödelhaie
Down By Law
Drei Flaschen
Dritte Wahl
Dropkick Murphys
Electric Frankenstein
Eskorbuto
The Exploited
Face To Face
The Faction
Fiat Lux
Fifteen
Fifth Column
fIREHOSE
Flatcat
Flipper
Frenzal Rhomb
Fugazi
Gatsbys American Dream
Gob
Goldfinger
Government Issue
Green Day
Guttermouth
The Hellacopters
Hi-Standard
Hammerhead
Happy Campers
De Heideroosjes
Hertzainak
Holy Shit And the Buzz Beamers
The Honor System
Horrorpops
Hot Snakes
Hüsker Dü
Inside Out
Janez Detd.
Jayne County
Jesus Skins
Julie Ruin
Justincase
Die Kassierer
Klamydia
Know Your Enemy
Kontrol
L7
Lagwagon
Lars Frederiksen and the Bastards
The Lawrence Arms
Le Shok
Leningrad
LiLiPut
Limp Wrist
Living End
Die Lokalmatadore
Look What I Did
Los Crudos
Lost World
Lower Class Brats
Lunachicks
Male
Mary Ellis
The Matches
MCD
Meat Puppets
The Melvins
Millencolin
Mindless Self Indulgence
Missing 23rd
MDC
The Minutemen
Molotow Soda
Mukilteo Fairies
Müllstation
MXPX
My 2 Dads
The Nancys
Nailpin
The Need
Neon King Kong
New Bomb Turks
Nobody's Heroes
NOFX
No Means No
No Use for a Name
On The Strings Of
One Man Army
Operation Ivy
The Offspring
Pansy Division
Pegboy
Pennywise
The Phantom Limbs
Picture Frame Seduction
Pöbel und Gesocks (former Beck's Pistols)
La Polla Records
The Progressives
Propagandhi
Protein
Pulley
The Queers
Quincy Punx
Rancid
Real McKenzies
Redd Kross
Reducers SF
Refused
Revenge of DFT
Rise Against
Rites of Spring
Die Ruhrpottkanaken
Rollins Band
Rx Bandits
Samiam
Scared Of Chaka
Scaterd Few
Scratch Acid
Seaweed
Se Schrillos
Screeching Weasel
Sex Mutants
The Shemps
Shortfuse
Sick of it All
Silver Head
Sister George
Slapstick
Sloppy Seconds
The Smutt Peddlers
SNFU
Social Distortion
The Spermbirds
theSTART
The Stitches
Street Dogs
Strung Out
Strike Anywhere
S.T.U.N
Subhumans
Suicidal Tendencies
Straight To Your Brain
Swingin' Utters
Team Dresch
Teen Idols
Terrorgruppe
The Suicide Machines
Three Dollar Bill
Tilt
Tom Troccoli's Dog
Total Chaos
Tötensen
Tribe 8
TSOL
Tsunami Bomb
Turbonegro
Violent Femmes
Vomit Thrower (Athens, GA)
Unlabeledband
The Unseen
U.S. Bombs
The Vandals
Vexation
V-Mann Joe
Walter Elf
A Wilhelm Scream
WIZO
WOW
WWK
The Young Werewolves
Zablujena generacija
Zarama
Zebrahead
zeroption
ZK
ZZZ Hacker


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_forerunners_of_punk_music

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_musicians_in_the_first_wave_of_punk_music

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_musicians_in_the_second_wave_of_punk_music
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