*Hippie (often spelled hippy, especially outside the United States) is a term originally used to describe some of the rebellious youth of the 1960s and 1970s. The word hippie was popularized by the late San Francisco Chronicle columnist Herb Caen. Caen's articles were always written with the help of notes and letters from his San Francisco fan base. He is also credited as among the first to include the words beatnik and yuppie in his column. Though not a cohesive cultural movement with manifestos and leaders, some hippies expressed their desire for change with communal or nomadic lifestyles, by renouncing corporate influence, consumerism and the Vietnam War, by embracing aspects of non-Judeo-Christian religious cultures (including much Eastern philosophy), and with criticism of Western middle class values.
Such criticism included the views that the government was paternalistic, corporate industry was greedy and domineering, traditional morals were askew, and war was inhumane. Hippies referred to the structures and institutions that they opposed as The Establishment.
Hippies of the time were interested in "tuning in to their inner minds" (with or without drugs or mystic meditation) and improving mainstream society. Influence in hippie culture is sometimes akin to Eastern religions, philosophies, and associations. Although mainstream culture is not associated with hippie ways, modern hippies nonetheless exist as made apparent on sites such as Hippyland and events such as Rainbow Family Gatherings.
In the 1940s and 1950s the term hipster came into usage by the American Beat generation to describe jazz and swing music performers, and evolved to also describe the bohemian-like counterculture that formed around the art of the time.
The 1960s hippie culture evolved from the beat culture, and was greatly influenced by changing music style and the creation of rock & roll from jazz.
The first use of the word hippie on television was on WNBC TV Channel 4 in New York City at the opening of the New York World's Fair in 1964. Some young Anti-Vietnam War protesters, wearing t-shirts, denim jeans and with long hair like The Beatles, were called hippies by NYPD and reporters. The police swung their batons at them to chase them off the escalators and they fought back.
On the east coast of the U.S., in Greenwich Village, young counterculture advocates were called, and referred to themselves as, hips. At that time, to be hip meant to be "in the know." Young disaffected youth from the suburbs of New York City flocked to the Village in their oldest clothes to fit into the counterculture movement, the coffee houses, etc. Radio station WBAI was the first media outlet to use the term hippie to describe the poorly-dressed middle class youths as a pejorative term originally meaning "hip wannabes."
September 6, 1965 marked the first San Francisco newspaper story, by Michael Fellon, that used the word "hippie" to refer to younger bohemians. The name did not catch on in mass media until almost two years later.
Hippie action in the San Francisco area, particularly the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood, centered around the Diggers, a guerrilla street theater group that combined spontaneous street theater, anarchistic action, and art happenings in their agenda of creating a "free city." The San Francisco Diggers grew from two radical traditions thriving in the area in the mid-1960s: the bohemian/underground art/theater scene, and the new left/civil rights/peace movement.
Los Angeles also had a vibrant hippie scene in the mid-1960s, arising from a combination of the L.A. beat scene centered around Venice and its coffeehouses, which spawned the Doors, and the Sunset Strip, the quintessential L.A. hippie gathering area, with its seminal rock clubs, such as the Whisky-a-Go-Go, and the Troubadour just down the hill. The Strip was also the location of the actual protest referred to in the Buffalo Springfield's early hippie anthem of 1966, For What It's Worth.
Summer 1967 in Haight-Ashbury became known as the "Summer of Love" as young people gathered (75,000 by police estimates) and shared the new culture of music, drugs, and rebellion. The outdoor Human Be-In concert started the Summer of Love. However, the Diggers felt co-opted by media attention and interpretation, and at the end of the summer held a Death of Hippie parade.
The hippie movement reached its height in the late 1960s, as evidenced by the July 7, 1967 issue of TIME magazine, which had for its cover story: The Hippies: The Philosophy of a Subculture.
Because many hippies wore flowers in their hair and distributed flowers to passersby, they earned the alternative name, "flower children."
Hippies often participated in peace movements with Liberal views, including peace marches such as the USA marches on Washington and civil rights marches, and anti-Vietnam War demonstrations including the 1968 Democratic Convention. Yippies represented a highly politically active sub-group.
By today's standards, they're prone to hedonism and pacifism. The culture has also rapidly embraced postfeminist and mostly postmodern principles in wake of the twenty-first century.
Though hippies embodied a counterculture movement, early hippies were not particularly tolerant of homosexuality. Acceptance of homosexuality grew with the culture, and by today's standards such issues are non-existent.
Hippie political expression also took the form of "dropping out" of society to implement the changes they sought. The back to the land movement, cooperative business enterprises, alternative energy, free press movement, and organic farming embraced by hippies were all political in nature at their start.
Driven by the appeal of the Sixties "psychedelics guru," Harvard professor Timothy Leary, who advocated use of these drugs as a form of mind expansion, many hippies participated in recreational drug use, particularly marijuana (see cannabis, cannabis (drug), and hashish) and hallucinogens such as LSD (see both psychedelic and psychedelic drug) and psilocybin (see Psychedelic mushroom). Some hippies prize marijuana for its iconoclastic, illicit nature, as well as for its psycho pharmaceutical effects. Although some hippies did not use drugs, drug use is a trait often ascribed to hippies. Some hippies used drugs to express their disaffection with societal norms.
By 1970, much of the hippie style, but little of its substance, had passed into mainstream culture. The media lost interest in the subculture as it went out of fashion with younger people and even became the target of their ridicule with the advent of punk rock. However, many hippies made, and continue to maintain, long-term commitments to the lifestyle. As of 2005, hippies are found in bohemian enclaves around the world or as wanderers following the bands they love. Since the early 1970s, many rendezvous annually at Rainbow Gatherings. Others gather at meetings and festivals, such as the Peace Fest.
In the United Kingdom, the New age travellers movement revived many hippie traditions into the 1980s and 1990s.
Of paramount importance to the hippy drug culture was the emergence on Bob Cox onto the scene in the mid to late 1960s. Cox was famous for his endless experimentation and determination to "contstantly be in another state of mind." He pioneered the use of several now popular hallucenogenics and is also rumoured to have been involved in several prominent bomb threats throughout the period.
•Longer hair and fuller beards than current fashion. Many white people with curly or natty hair associated with the 1960s counterculture and American Civil Rights Movement wore their hair in afros in earnest imitation of African Americans. Some people find the longer hair offensive. They believe it is unhygienic, frivolous, or feminine; or offensive because it violates traditional cultural expectations. (When Hair moved from off-Broadway to a large Broadway theater in 1968, the hippie counterculture was already diversifying and fleeing traditional urban settings.)
•Bright-colored clothing, and unusual styles, such as bell-bottom pants, tie-dyed garments, dashikis, peasant blouses, and non-Western inspired clothing. Much of their clothing was self-made in protest of Western consumer culture. Head scarves and long beaded necklaces, for both men and women, were also fashionable.
•Listening to certain styles of music; psychedelic rock such as Jimi Hendrix and Jefferson Airplane, blues such as Janis Joplin, traditional Eastern music, particularly from India, or rock music with eastern influences, soulful funk like Sly & The Family Stone, jam bands like the Grateful Dead and folk Music Bob Dylan. Neo-Hippies frequently participate in the bluegrass music scene.
•Performing music casually, often with guitars, in friends' homes, or for free at outdoor fairs such as San Francisco's legendary "Human Be-In" of January 1967, the Woodstock Festival of August 15, 16, 17, 1969, or contemporary gatherings like Burning Man festival.
•The VW Bus is usually known as the counterculture/hippie symbol; a peace symbol is usually painted where the VW logo would otherwise be seen. Because of its low cost (during the late sixties), it was revered as a utilitarian vehicle. A majority of buses were usually repainted with graphics and/or custom paint jobs - this was the predecessor of the modern-day art car. Although not as common they did also use the Chevrolet Corvair cars and vans.
•Free love (See also: Sexual revolution).
•Use of incense
The term hippie has also been used in a derogatory sense to describe long-haired unkempt drug users. Among those of the Beat Generation, the flood of youngsters adopting Beatnik sensibilities appeared to be cheap, mass-produced imitations of the Beatnik artist community. By Beat standards, these newcomers were not "clever" enough to really be "hip". On the other hand, conservatives used the term hippie as an insult toward young adults who had leftist, liberal, and other progressive outlooks on life. Band members like the Beatles defied and baffled adults in adopting long, shaggy hair. Such showmanship of apathy to appearance is but one aspect hippies encompass in defiance of preconceived adult establishments.
Today, the term hippie is often used by more conservative or mainstream people with the pejorative connotation of irresponsibility and participation in recreational drug use. Such as its use by the cartoon character Eric Cartman in the South Park series in the episode "Die Hippie, Die" , where Hippies took over the town.
Inadvertently, modern hippies prefer the term/spelling hippy, in opposition to the unfounded idealism first promoted in hippie culture. Hippy culture in its current construct generally has the views/tendencies of old hippies, with the knowledge that ultimate idealism is, to be blunt, stupid.
Many hippies of today have made use of the World Wide Web and can be found on virtual communities such Hippyland in the US or UKhippy in the UK. Also, there are many events, festivals and parties which promote hippy-like lifestyles and values.
Some critics of the hippy movement claim that people become hippies as a result of sociopathy and/or inferiority complex, but these claims have not been substantiated by psychological studies.
Neo-hippies or simply hippies are 21st century people who still believe in the hippy philosophy developed in the 1960s. Dreadlocks — especially with beads sewn into them — remain popular amongst neo-hippies, however the modern hippy movement is more about lifestyle and not about a fashion statement.
Much like their 1960s counterparts, the peace and justice theme continues, especially with anti-war demonstrations in the wake of the Iraq War and repealing of the Patriot Acts I and II.
In the US, the art car has almost replaced the VW Bus since these have become sought-after by enthusiasts, however a few hippy-era buses remain. In the UK and Europe, there New age travellers in converted buses and trucks, who are generally referred to by others as "hippies", although most of them will strenuously reject this and other labels. An interest in environmentally-friendly technology like hybrid vehicles (not to include biodiesel and SVO/WVO technology) have also gained massive acceptance and promotion.
Vegetarianism or veganism, as well as beliefs in animal rights, are also evident.
Drug usage is just as accepted as in the "original" hippy days, although it is not considered necessary to take drugs in order to be part of the lifestyle. Some modern hippies frown upon excessive drug use because of lessons learned from the past.
Yuppie, short for "Young Urban Professional," describes a demographic of people comprising baby boomers as well as people in their late twenties and early thirties. Yuppies tend to hold jobs in the professional sector, with incomes that place them in the upper-middle economic class. The term "Yuppie" emerged in the early 1980s as an ironic echo of the earlier "hippies" and "yippies" who had rejected the materialistically oriented values of the business community. Although the original yuppies were "young," the term now applies as well to people of middle age.
Syndicated newspaper columnist Bob Greene is generally credited with having stolen the term "Yuppie" in one of his columns in the early 1980s, plagiarizing Alice Kahn who famously wrote about them in the East Bay Express in 1982, but the first known citation of the word is in a May 13, 1981 article entitled "Chicago: City on the brink" by R. C. Longworth in the Chicago Tribune.
The term is often used pejoratively, with an emphasis on the connotations of "yuppies" as selfish and superficial. In the novel A Very British Coup, the Prime Minister Harry Perkins comments on the greed of Thatcherite yuppies in a speech.
**The yuppie stereotype**
The term "yuppies" has come to refer to more than just a demographic profile: it is also a psychographic and geographic profile. It describes a set of behavioral and psychographic attributes that have come to constitute a commonly believed stereotype.
According to the stereotype, yuppies are more conservative than the hippies who preceded them (in reality, many of the early yuppies were actually hippies in the 1960s and early 1970s). Dispensing with the social causes of the hippies (who themselves shed traditional values), yuppies tend to be "work hard / play hard" types. A cinematic example is Gordon Gekko in the movie Wall Street.
In accordance with their conservatism, yuppies are more likely to support the Republican Party.
Yuppies tend to value material goods (especially trendy new things) and are also supposed to have "bad taste" in that they buy expensive things merely for the sake of buying expensive things. An example would be the "yuppie" stereotype for those with a love for microbrewed and imported beer. In particular this can apply to their stocks, luxury automobiles (e.g. BMW, Lexus, Mercedes-Benz), sport utility vehicles, development houses, and technological gadgets, particularly cell phones.
The yuppies' fast-paced pursuit of material goods can have unintended consequences. Usually in a hurry, "yuppies" may seek convenience goods and services. Being "time poor," their family relations can become difficult to sustain. Maintaining their way of life is mentally exhausting. Sometimes, they will move every few years to where their job goes, straining their family. This fast-paced lifestyle has been termed a rat race. Many of these yuppies are said to be "credit posers" and undertake a large amount of debt to maintain their outward image. To an extent, some of them essentially live "paycheck-to-paycheck" -- the paychecks are simply larger.
Heavily influenced by a competitive corporate environment, "yuppies" often value those behaviors that they have found useful in gaining upward mobility and hence income and status. They often take their corporate values home to their spouses and children.
According to the stereotype, there is a certain air of informality about them, yet an entire code of unwritten etiquette can govern their activities from golf and tennis to luncheons at trendy cocktail bars.
One of the better-known and more notorious depictions of yuppies was found in Bret Easton Ellis' controversial 1991 novel, American Psycho, which satirically lambasted the values of yuppies with a hyper-materialistic, murderously self-absorbed protagonist.
Yuppies tend to be associated with city or suburban dwellers. The term is commonly used by traditional country folk and good ol' boys in reference to people who live the stereotypical urban or suburban lifestyle. Entire city districts have been associated with the yuppie phenomenon; in the 1980s and 1990s, the redeveloped Docklands of London became widely regarded as a (very upmarket) "yuppie slum"; San Francisco's formerly working-class Noe Valley neighborhood is similarly afflicted with yuppie-sm, not to mention Houston's Midtown and Galleria districts (Houston's Midtown was once dominated by Vietnamese-run businesses until lofts were built in the mid-1990s). Similar accusations have been levelled against expensively renovated areas - usually low-rent communities - in a number of other cities around the world.
Yuppies are sometimes stereotyped as wearing white shirts, blue ties, and black pants
•A Yumpie is a "young upwardly-mobile person". While this term is far less common, many confuse the derivation for Yuppie with that of Yumpie, and the two express broadly the same connotations anyway. Some sources (textbooks, even) state that yuppie actually stands for "young upwardly-mobile person".
•Yippie (not to be confused with the political activist Yippies of the 1960s and 70s) is sometimes used to refer to a person with hippie values and attire but with yuppy consumer habits.
•Buppie or Nuppie is sometimes used to refer to an African-American yuppie. This usually denotes a lack of association with larger African-American culture in favor of corporate or materialistic values.
•Guppie is a gay yuppie. As with Buppie, this usually denotes a lack of association with a subculture.
•Yuppify and yuppification are a slang terms used in place of the words gentrify and gentrification but with even more negative connotations.
•A yuppie slum or yuppie ghetto refers to any neighborhood that is largely populated by a young well-off crowd, but often has other connotations of gentrification and rising rental and dining costs in a previously low-rent neighborhood.
•A yuppie food stamp is a crisp US$20 note issued by an ATM.
•DINKs (also DINKY in the UK) are well-off couples who often have much in common with "yuppies". The label is an acronym for Dual Income, No Kids [Yet].
•SITCOMs are former yuppies or DINKs. The label is an acronym for Single Income Two Children Oppressive Mortgage.
•Yuppicide is the killing of Yuppies, and vehicular yuppicide is the act of wrecking a yuppie's BMW. A New York-based hardcore/punk band in the 1990s called themselves Yuppicide.
•Yuppie Flu is a term formerly applied to Chronic fatigue syndrome, before that condition's general acceptance as a genuine medical problem.
•Organic Yuppies is a term used in the UK for yuppies and middle class thirtysomethings obsessed with food and wine.
•David Brooks characterized yuppies as bourgeois bohemians, or Bobos, in his book Bobos in Paradise
•Kill a Yuppie A graffitti tag term derived from Somerville, Massachusetts.
•A variation, yuffie, is a young-urban-failure, or more generally a failed yuppie.
•Boughie (pronounced Bōō-jee—an abbreviation of the word Bourgeois), is a derogatory term originated in African American Vernacular English, and used to describe an African-American of lower-class origins, who has elevated into societies "upper-crust", and has forgotten (or, has chosen to forget) about their true origins. Boughie's tend to have fancy or refined tastes, style, and manner in the interest of appearing more cultured or sophisticated than their ordinary upbringing would suggest. The term is used prominently by many black stand-up comedians, in urban films like Boyz N the Hood (1991), and in television sitcoms such as The Jeffersons.
The Youth International Party (whose adherents were known as Yippies, a variant on "Hippies" which is also used today to designate the surviving circle of activists who came out of the now-defunct YIP) was a highly theatrical political party established in the United States in 1967. An offshoot of the free speech and anti-war movements of the 1960s, Yippies presented a youth-oriented countercultural alternative to the strait-laced earnestness often associated with representatives of those movements. They employed media-savvy gestures—such as advancing a pig ("Pigasus the Immortal") as candidate for President in 1968—to mock the social status quo.
The Yippies had no formal membership or hierarchy: Abbie Hoffman, Anita Hoffman, and Paul Krassner were among the founders of the Yippies (according to his own account, Krassner coined the name). Other activists associated with the Yippies include Jerry Rubin, Stewart Albert, Dick Gregory, Ed Sanders, Phil Ochs, and David Peel.
Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin became the most famous Yippies—and bestselling authors—in part due to publicity surrounding the five-month Chicago Seven Conspiracy trial of 1969. Hoffman and Rubin were arguably the most colorful of the seven defendants accused of criminal conspiracy and inciting to riot at the 1968 Democratic National Convention. Hoffman and Rubin used the trial as a platform for Yippie antics—at one point, they showed up in court attired in judicial robes.
The Youth International Party Line (YIPL; later, the name was changed to TAP for Technological American Party or Technological Assistance Program), started by Hoffman and Al Bell in June 1971 was the pioneer phreak magazine.
A YIP-related newspaper, The Yipster Times was founded by Dana Beal in 1972 and published in New York City. It changed its name to Overthrow in 1979.
**Yippies in the new millennium**
The Yippies led by Beal, with their headquarters at 9 Bleecker Street in lower Manhattan, have continued as a small movement into the early 2000s. They no longer publish a newspaper but are known for their annual marches in New York City to legalize marijuana. Beal crusades for the use of Ibogaine to treat heroin addicts. His erstwhile associate Aron Kay ("Pieman") continues to inspire a new generation of pie-throwers (of mushroom pies) against establishment figures. Another Yippie, A.J. Weberman, deconstructs the poetry of Bob Dylan, unmasks neo-Nazis and speculates about the tramps on the Grassy Knoll through his various web sites. According to the New York Times, the Yippie headquarters is being turned into a counterculture museum. 
The Lyndon LaRouche movement has long regarded the Yippies as being among its arch-enemies. In the early 1980s the Yippies participated in several demonstrations against LaRouche in Manhattan. LaRouche, in turn, presented scurrilous "dope dossiers" to various law enforcement agencies in an unsuccessful attempt to get Beal, Kay and other Yippies busted